This incorporates an attempt to follow up any kind of musical allusion in the play texts and stage directions which relate to dance and other musical forms. The examples chosen to represent musical forms are mainly by Elizabethan and Jacobean Court composers, often anonymous settings, here singled out for such qualities as concision and memorability. It should not prove a hindrance to their performance that pieces in this repertoire based on tunes and motifs from the popular music of the time for the most part was written for virginals, a gentle instrument unsuited to the stage and certainly inappropriate in open air performances. Much of this fine repertoire has been adapted for consorts of recorders or other instruments, and selection of titles for inclusion in this survey has often been related to the material drawn to my attention by the enthusiasm of the compilers of anthologies.

Works cited where a composer is not given are anonymous; in general, it is such pieces, especially those from the lute books, which will often prove most apt for use as stage music.

Full bibliographical citations (together with an incipit in musical notation) including those for related music in alternative settings are to be found in the preceding play survey within the serial number sequence 1-417. If a music suggestion has not been allocated to a particular point in a play, bibliographical information is given here in the NOTES, and if there is more than one numerical reference, see under the serial number in bold type within square brackets.

Included here also are various types of signals that may be encountered, as for instance those which might lend themselves to distinguish one particular faction or ‘house’ from another as they occur in the course of the plays.

see under word following the asterisk for detailed entry in these NOTES.


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G

galliard allusions H5 I ii 252, TN I iii 123 and 132; for a detailed survey of the dance see DH30-32; 30-32; see also closing reference at the end of this article (Mu II i 74)
This ‘blithe, dashing and brisk’ (B227-8) dance in triple time incorporates a characteristic rhythmic ambiguity as it calls for five steps and a leap. Mabel Dolmetsch describes it as a ‘limping hop’ (MT lvii 143). There is a detailed survey of the dance in DH30-32
It possibly originated in Italy, for it is similar to the *saltarello, for example one c1520 ‘La Barca del mio amore’ rSATB TD3 828
A couple of English Galyards appeared as early as 1530 in RAd 6 and 10 829-830
The galliard itself as developed in early 16th century France, is well represented in the many anthologies by Attaignant, Phalèse and others. A typical example is a Gaillarde set by GERVAISE in his Quart livre de danseries 1550 ۞EmH12 (also included in a small anthology adapted for brass quintet tr+tr/hn+hn/trn+tbn/tu GD1); 831
From his 1557 collection comes a Galliarde de la guerre with shawms and drums ۞YC4 832
and the Adrienne Simpson lute anthology includes a Galliarde by MORLAYE SL5 832A
The dance is described in Arbeau (ARb 82-102/ARe 99-102; steps: B227-30). Julia Sutton reminds us that Queen Elizabeth is supposed to have danced six or seven galliards daily before breakfast (ARe 234).
Although very often paired with the pavan (see *pavan and galliard pairs in sequence), there are examples which appear to be independent. See Alan Brown’s article for history and description (G7 ix 449-51).
The earlier and usually anonymous examples tend to be more appropriate for stage dances: these include the tunes in Arbeau,
‘La traditore my fa morire’ (372) 833
‘Baisons nous belle’ (152) 834
‘Si j’ayme ou non’ ARe 104-6, 250-1/ ARd 3 835
and the graceful ‘Antoinette’ ARi 5/ ARd 6/ N&138; melody and steps ARe100-2, 249 836
as well as ‘La Rocha el fuso’ which appeared in many mss. (GB-Lbl Roy. App. 59-62/ Estrées 1559/ Phalèse 1571 (LO f7v/ DL250) LPM DM2: 15, ed. by M. Murrow/ BV3; rS CT7/ rSATB BC i 15/ BV3; lute WM ii 18 837
The Phalèse 1571 collection of dances à 4 includes ‘Si pour t’aymer’ rSATB TR4 838
and Moeck 3605 contains a further four galliardes from that source.
As well as those from Continental sources, there are many galliards in the Lodge, Dallis and Ballet lute books, among them:
‘Scotch gaylarde’ (DL26); (157) 839
‘All of a greene willow’ (FD8 f19/ DL26 f25-6); (251b) 840
‘Labandalashot’ (DL 14) WM22; (47a ii) 841
‘Chi passa’ (FD67/ DL 13) a subject set by many composers; (384, 544, 627) 842
‘Wigmore’s galliard’ (DL20/ BA29); (80, 247a) 843
‘French gayliarde’ (attrib. John JOHNSON) (FD4: 16v-17v/ DL40) WM ii 154 which is also included in the appendix of music for cittern and gittern in the Mulliner Book among five galliards (three for cittern) MB1 App x 844
For consort there is a group of Italian galliards published in Bernard Thomas’ useful anthology for rSSATB TR2: as a suite of four saltarelli (galliards):
‘Il burato’ from Phalèse, TR2a; steps TR p. 38 845
a saltarello ‘Basela un trato’ à 4 (GB-Lbl Roy App. 59-62/ D-Mbs Mu 1503b) TR2b; tune rA CT17 846
an untitled ‘gagliard’ à 5, TR2c which appreared in HESSE brothers collection 1555; à 3 kRA58; 847
and ‘Gagliarda Zorzi’ rSSATB TR2d; tune rA CT16 848
Susato has a catchy Saltarello à 4, a triple time version of his Ronde no 6. 849 (1384, 1390)
The shapely and graceful ‘Michill’s galliard’, with its high arching second phrase, was adapted for *broken consort by MORLEY M16 whose pretty part for lute keeps the fingers very busy (26b) 850
and PARSONS Galliard à 5 (GB-Lbl Add MS 3048) is recommended as a ‘true dancing dance’ and quoted in full in ME98 851
Among the examples of the form in PRAETORIUS is an exquisite and particularly danceable Galliarde à 5 P287 yet the atmosphere it generates is yet rather mysterious; ۞NeP1 ii;. 852
another Galliarde à 4 by Praetorius P310 is played by recorder ensemble on ۞EmP7 852A
In addition to a number of HOLBORNE galliards mentioned in the survey (see composer index, there is the appealing ‘Muy Linda’ (Myvlinda) [J130] H34; ۞A15/ ۞Cc15/ ۞Ci 6/ ۞DoP5/ ۞He25/ ۞Ma16/ ۞YF3 i; rSSATB Hb iii 5/ DQ8; lute HB30; ۞W2; cittern HC36 which brims with rhythmic ambiguities 853
For keyboard, Naylor gives the accolade to the MORLEY Galliard F154 as one of the best Eliza- bethan dances (Fn56), which is paired with the ‘Lachrymae’ pavan based on the Dowland motif 854
and Galiardo F269 of FARNABY as the very best in the repertoire MB xxiv 20/ N137-8/ FAd 14 855
and another is the wonderfully calming ‘His rest’ F195/ MB xxiv 51/ FAd2/ RV20; ۞ChQ10/ ۞Go2:2; gFAg 5/ gRZ ii 10; 856 (1302)
there is also a sprightly, ravishing lute Gagliarde by ROSSETER (PI 45) ۞BreG 6/ ۞HeP9; possibly that set by Farnaby F283/ MB xxiv 21; rSATT/B Fg 9; rS + k MG13 857
Naylor also praises highly a Galliard by OSTERMAYRE F260 (Fn56). (318c) 858
Other fine examples for virginals are the HARDING Galiarda à 5 MB xl 21; rSSATB BC ii 26, whose setting by Byrd Thurston Dart considers one of his most eloquent kF122/ MB xxviii 55; ۞Mo ii 13; 859
by BULL ‘The Prince’s galliard’ MB xix 113/ MB19d 4 860
and ‘Regina galliard’ 1603 in three sections employing imposing harmonies MB xix 132a-c; ۞A4/ ۞CwM13; these would perhaps prove too elaborate outside a theatrical performance at Court; 861
and in rather different context, his ‘Thumping Galliard’ MB xix 90; 862 (887)
conversely a fine short Galiardo by PHILIPS which is full of rhythmic interest kF87/ Fp2;
۞DoH5 ii/ ۞PaC2; rA + g PP5; rA + k Fd iv 5 863
The Mulliner Book has a keyboard arrangement of the both gracious and poignant consort song ‘I smile to see how you devise’ on which the galliard there is based DB23/ MB1: 86v, 88/ MBls; ۞Ci 14; rSAA/TB HD6; rA + g MB1d 9; rSA/TTB BC i 27; 864
‘Venetian Galliard’ for cittern attributed to CHURCHYARD (xi 126 v) MB1 App xi; kMP59 865 (960)
and ‘Queen of Scots galliard’ attributed to MULLINER himself MB1 App ix 866
(see Dart ‘The Cittern and its English music’. Galpin Society Journal , vol. 1)
There are a number of galliards by DOWLAND for lute (D) also in consort versions (DA): a particularly humorous example is his ‘Battle galliard’ for lute D40 which in the consort version is known as ‘The King of Denmark’s galliard’ DA11; the lighter touch it displays being rather a rarity in this great composer’s output; (357, 512, 538) 867
another in this vein is his hardly bellicose ‘Round battle’ D39; ۞CmD xi 16/ ۞DoH5 ii/ ۞Ld iv 6/ ۞Lg 12/ ۞Mf18/ ۞OD v 3; gNR16; 868
while Diana Poulton counts ‘Walsingham galliard’ D31, ‘compact and written with grear economy’ as among the most successful of his smaller compositions (DP147) (44) 869 (1540)
the galliard ‘Susanna fair’ is rhythmically stimulating yet graceful: for lute D91; ۞OD ii 3 and consort DA22; ۞CmD xi 23/ ۞Ex5/ ۞PaM18/ ۞RoR3; this elaboration is based on one of the most popular tunes of the late 16th century (the LASSUS chanson ‘Suzanne un jour’); also in a keyboard version MB lv 44; ۞Se15; 870
opening similarly is a decorous yet sprightly short consort for 4 viols with lute as ‘Mr. Bucton’s galliard’ DA19; ۞CmD vi 24/ ۞DoL15/ ۞Ex6/ ۞FA ii 5/ ۞FG i 2/ ۞FH11/ ۞Pd 8; ۞Ro6; rSAA/TTB DAb9; 871
and for lute, the short and sprightly yet splendid ‘The Most Sacred Queene Elizabeth, her Galliard,’ D41a/ Dj i 2; ۞BreG21/ ۞ChQ9/ ۞CmD viii 18/ ۞Hf 16/ ۞Hp 11 iii/ ۞Ld i 1/ ۞Mf12 / ۞OD iii 6/ ۞Th2; gDd 13/ Db6/ Dt 11/ NR40; has echoes suggestive of fanfares and trumpet calls; (626) 872 (1503)
‘Melancholy galliard’ D25, whose brooding quality rules it out for dancing; (239b) 873
the jaunty ‘Mr Giles Hoby’s galliard’ for lute D29; for 4 viols and lute DA15; ۞CmD viii 25/ ۞DoL12/ ۞FD15/ ۞FG i 18/ ۞Go9:4/ ۞Ld i 17/ ۞OD i 15/ ۞Roc 14; rSSATB DAb 12 which would make an effective piece to end a comedy; 874
‘M. Nicholas Gryffith his galiard’ DA16; ۞CmD vi 16/ ۞DoL21/۞FA ii 9/ ۞FD16/ ۞FG i 7/ ۞FH12/ ۞RoC 19; rSAA/TTB DAb13, its gracious opening contrasts with a sprightly conclusion with much ambiguous syncopation; 875
the capricious ‘The Lady Clifton’s spirit’ D45; ۞BreG24/ ۞CmD viii 23/ ۞Ld 1 3/ ۞Mf25/ ۞OD iii 8/ ۞Pd 13; gDp5, which is ‘indeed full of spirit and charm’ (PD157) 876
and of his galliards Diana Poulton thinks ‘Digorie Piper’ perhaps the most beautiful (PD133) (8) 877
Versions for lute alone of certain of some of his finest lute songs are valued additions to this repertoire including
‘Frog galliard’ D23 based on ‘Now, o now I needs must part’ (188b) 878
‘The Rt. Hon. Robert Earl of Essex, his galliard’ with its highly effective hemiola rhythms, which was also used for the lute song ‘Can she excuse my wrongs with virtue’s cloak’ and as a motif for a virginal piece ‘Can shee’ now attributed to MARCHANT (353c) (1089) 879
his ‘Mignarda’ D34; ۞BreG4/ ۞CmD ix 6/ ۞DoH22/ ۞Ld ii 10/ ۞OD ii 21/ ۞RoC 7; gDj ii 4 is of affecting beauty, gracious but with movement, and exists as a consort for 4 viols and lute ‘(Mr Henry) Nowell his galliard’ DA14; ۞Bw7/ ۞CmD vi 22/ ۞FD14/ ۞FG i 13; rSAATB TD18; and also exists as a lute song ‘Shall I strive with words to move’ EL LS 4/ Df42; ۞Aw ii 12/۞BoD17/ ۞Cc17/ ۞CmD iv 5/ ۞DoL8/ ۞Ta3. 880
‘Sir John Souch, his Galliard’ D26; ۞BreD21/ ۞Ex3/ ۞FD13/ ۞FG i 8/ ۞OD ii 23; DA13/ Dab; ۞CamQ 12/ 7; ۞CmD vi 17/۞DoL20/ ۞RoC 12; rS+k D1X9; gDd12; rATB ۞EmH25; this was based on ‘My thoughts are winged with hope’, a sprightly treatment of a melancholy tune EL (i 1) LS 1: 3/ Df3; + rA + g Di 2 881 (1095)
Of the 326 pieces in the Cambridge lute ms (CH) there are as many as 74 galliards; among the anonymous ones is (CH 1) singled out by Lumsden for his anthology l/k LU5 882
Selecting from a large number of lute galliards by CUTTING, five of which are included by Martin Long: one in C minor BB (F4-G1) 13; tkCF13; gCFj 5; 883
his long but not over elaborate galliard in G minor which appeared in many ms. collections including (CH 7v): tCHr48/ kLU8/ tkCF10; gCFj l; 884
and ‘Raleigh’s galliard (Ewing ms. 25); ۞CamQ8; 885
another galliard which has appeared in modern anthologies is by ROBINSON RS11/ PN 10 886
There is a galliard by BULL of a really vigorous type with a particularly bouncy bass line, his ‘Vaulting galliard’ also known as ‘Thumping ‘or ‘Dancing galliard MB xix 90 (862) 887
The cinque-pace (les cinq pas; sink-a-pace) as in the allusion ‘I would not so much as make water but in a sink-a-pace’ TN I iii 135, is an expression used as synonym for galliard, being in triple time employing five steps and a leap; Beatrice ends her ‘Ages of man’ speech Mu II i 74 ‘and with his bad legs, falls into a cinque-pace faster and faster, till he sink into his grave.’ One so-called is ‘Sinkapace galliard’ (DY26, p95) HT7/ SA338; steps B230/ N&137-8/ DH15, 20-22; ۞Bro L2/ ۞BroS32/ ۞DH no. 2/ ۞St 13; gSG30 888
For other references to the galliard see under ‘Pavane and galliard’ and the TITLE INDEX
gamut see the hexachord under *‘Ut Re Mi Fa Sol La’; see allusions in ToS III i
gavotte Julia Sutton notes Arbeau’s description of how in the sequence of *branles the concluding dance could be a gavotte in which partners would kiss (ARe 175-6) as in H8 I iv 98-9 ‘I were unmannerly to take you out [to dance] And not to kiss you’ ARe228; à 4 ARi 9/ N47; rS + k DX9 889
Another choice could be one of the seven gavottes à 5 PRAETORIUS P1 890
and another by LEJEUNE à 4 (43) 891
German motifs There is a haunting 15th century prettily ornamented organ piece by PAUMANN based on a German song ‘Mit ganczem Willen’ rS/A/T + g RD20 892
and from a century later from Ein newgeordent kūnstlich Lautenbuch of 1536 by NEUSIDLER, a paired court dance for lute (Hoftanz followed by a ‘Hupffauf’ in 3/4) ‘Ein guts Hofftenterlein für ein Schuler’ HM 107; ‘Hupfauff‘on its own in BV 12 893
and ‘Ein guter Welscher Tanz’ Hofmeister FH4550 Der Tablatur 1 (1965) p. 24; gSG56 894
as well as a further Hoftanz by JUDENKÜNIG 1523 NOHM iv 699; 895
The lute piece ‘Elslein, liebestes, Elselein mein’ 1523, which has been attributed both to that composer gCR14 and to NEUSIDLER 1536 tSL1, also appears as no 18 in Rooley’s Penguin book of early music 1980 describing it as ‘near folk music’ with verses set as a tenor lute song with alternate verses set for 2 lutes and for 2 rebecs, flutes or recorders, all coming together in the last verse. 896
Anne Daye gives steps for ‘The Cecilia Almaine’ providing music by AMMERBACH 1583 ‘Der Magister-Dantz kDH49; ۞BroL 10/ ۞DH no 10; (The tune given in DI iv 14 is made up by Peggy Dixon to for the phrases of the dance); (567) 897
for later collections of appealing dances by HAUPTMANN and DEMANTIUS, see examples listed in the Composer index.
gigg(e) see *jig
gods see *supernatural effects
‘Goe from my window’ the haunting tune of a lost ballad which appeared in a number of lute anthologies. The DOWLAND set of variations for lute D64 opens with a simple beautifully harmonised eight-bar statement; many consort and keyboard settings were based on this haunting tune including a particularly noteworthy set of variations F42 by John MUNDY. (Note that the set by MORLEY F9 is the same work omitting the last variation. NOHM iv 629-30 and note). The GIBBONS set of variations for virginals is described by John Caldwell as a masterpiece of classical counterpoint (CDh470). Cathy Gaskell apropos her edition à 6: rSSAATB OL115 considers it one of the most exciting pieces ever written for viols; and for *broken consort the ALISON setting is particularly effective. Brian Jeffery in his introduction to his edition of the lute works of PILKINGTON (PL p.132) considers his setting based on the tune as one of the more playable in variation form, and Matthew Spring describes this work and quotes the 16 bar statement and the first three of the six variations (SP132) lute/tk SP133-6. (354f, 606) 898
‘gods’ see *supernatural effects
‘goodnight’ allusion 2H4 III ii 328. dirge-like pieces relating to the last night of a condemned person, most famously relating to the beheading of Queen Elizabeth’s favourite in 1601, The Earl of Essex, with the ballad tune ‘Well-a-day’ or ‘Essex’s last Goodnight’; the text of the dirge opens ‘Sweet England’s prize is gone!’ (36a) 899
Others include ROBINSON ‘Queen’s Goodnight,’ 1603 for 2 lutes; (109d), 900, (1073)
ALISON ‘Lady Frances Sidney’s Goodnight’ 1588 for broken consort MB xl 1; 901
and BULL ‘Goodnighte’, whose haunting opening alman strain could be effective, (though the brilliant set of variations following would be out of place in the theatre) kMB xix 143/ MB19d: 12/ BUk36; 2gBUq3 902
An anonymous ‘Goodnight, good rest’ is among the ‘Long Grounds’ sequence for lute WM ii 67d 903
Gray’s Inn masques, see *masques (1142-3, 1146-8)
‘Greensleeves’ (178) 903A
greenwood in the survey some suggestions for ‘forest’ music for use in ‘As you like it’ include ‘Greenwood’ in its various manifestions; (15b) 904
for TTB voices, the anonymous ‘I am a jolly foster’ (15c) 905
and COOPER ‘I have been a foster’ (15d) 906
and the catch for 4 bass voices ‘What shall he hath that killed the deer’ (19) 907
Further pieces with woodland motifs are the rounds à 3 ‘Hey ho the Greenwood’ Rp1/ SD1/ GR220 (there attributed to David MELVILL) rS SS or TTT Z4; 908
HENRY VIII ‘Green groweth the holly’; (94) 909
‘Small paths to the greenwood à 3 (TTB) whose length might suggest itself as interval music, MB xxxvi 66; ۞Hi 1 910
The dance setting à 4 by SUSATO ‘Le joly bois’ SU i 15; ۞YC 18; after a chanson by CLEMENS non Papa ‘Au joli bois’ ۞MnF10 iv 911
A piece for *broken consort à 4 producing a gently pastoral effect is ‘Hollis berrie’ à 5 (GB-Lbl Add Ms 17786-91 no. 5) TM51; ۞KnQ7/ ۞MgE3/ ۞MgM 1 which is similar to a piece set by Brade 1617 as ‘Der heilig Berg’ (BN15) TB 9; 912
There are many settings of ‘Will you walk the woods so wild’ (a favourite of King Henry VIII, notes David Wulstan WT123); one of the finest of these settings is GIBBONS ‘The Wood so wilde’ though this would be far too elaborate for stage use, but the final section (the 10 bars of Variation 14) of the setting by BYRD ‘Will yow walke the woods soe wylde’ could perhaps suit; (15b) 913
and a there is a fine lute song ‘Far from triumphing court…he dwelt in shady unfrequented places’ by DOWLAND (1614) EL(ii 20) LS16: 8 / Df 48/ WA iv 15; ۞CmD xii 13 914
CORKINE ‘Come live with me…beside shallow waters’ is a gentle, pretty pastoral song (180a) 915
Many settings of the ‘Browning’ tune exist, outstanding among them are the consorts by WOODCOCK, ‘Browning my deare à 5’ (well recorded by The Musicians of Swanne Alley (MsE i 19). and another ‘Browning’ setting is by STONINGS. As well as a set of variations by PHALÈSE ‘The Leaves be green.’ In the very fine contrapuntal setting by BYRD with its fascinating rhythmic ambiguities, there is no clear statement of the tune making it less appropriate for theatrical use. In COBBOLD ‘New Fashions’ the musical motif recurs producing a sort of rondo effect (154d) 916
The superbly graceful madrigal with fa-la refrain ‘Hark all ye lovely saints’ for SSATB (or instruments) of WEELKES, celebrates the agreement between Diana, the goddess of the hunt and the spirit of the woodland glade, and Cupid the god of love, to break his fiery darts OBEM19/ S&B M1008/ HM170; ۞DeC20 917
and in LPM EML339 (together with his ‘To shorten winter’s sadness’) (643) 918
see also under *horn, hunting, *Robin (is to the greenwood gone), et
ground ground bass patterns in part writing in common use during the 16th century ; see under
*Bergamasca; (554-9) 919
*dumpe (281c, 740-1, 753-761) 920
*passamezzo antico; 921 (1211-2)
*passamezzo moderno; 922 (1213-21)
*Rogero; (120c) 923
see also *divisions
guitar an instrument not characteristic of the Shakespearean period, although a predecessor of the guitar was an instrument of significance in 16th century Spain (vihuela de mano). Nevertheless it may be considered a reasonable practical measure for the ‘modern’ guitar to act as an attractive stand-in for the *lute.


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