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(CM209-210: 17 cues). David Lindley’s recent Shakespeare in music LS218-233 treats this aspect of the play in detail. Nosworthy declares that ‘music informs the action of The Tempest at all points’ (NN66). See especially John P. Cutts Music in the Tempest M&L xxxiv (1958) 347-58, Jacobean masque and stage music, xxxv ( 1954) 184-200 and his Two Songs in The Tempest set by Robert Johnson xxxvi (1955) 110-125. (308a,b)

Cutts relates the two masque dances LM62 ‘The Tempest’ and LM63 ‘A Masque’ attributed to Robert JOHNSON to the two ‘Tempest’ songs now firmly attributed to him, finding their gaiety also to run through the two instrumental masques, accordingly recommending their use as incidental music in the play (see 308a/b below). LC47-49 also treats of the masques. See also OS App. C pp.220-6 ‘The Music’; ME217 discusses the songs.

SM45-7 considers that ‘music must seem a pervasive presence rather than a particular reality.’ The NC edition (2002, ed. David Lindley) takes special note of the play’s musical potential and prints the songs in App. 1, pp. 251-3; The AS 6th edition of the play (1958 ed. by Frank Kermode, pp.156-160) prints the masque entitled ‘The Tempest’ [LM62]. Sabol (SA p.575-6) notes that this antimasque was written by CAMPION for the Squire’s masque’ in 1613 and that the title reflects the character of the dance not the title of the Shakespeare play.

CA mentions the choice of music for the masques made by Arnold Dolmetsch in his performances with the Elizabethan Stage Company in June and October 1897. See also Chan 308-31. There is an essay by Theresa Colletti ‘Music and “The Tempest”’ (in Richard Tobias and Paul G. Zolbrod Shakespeare’s late plays. Athens, Ohio, 1974, pp. 185-99) to which Christopher Wilson alludes in his discussion of Shakespeare’s ‘atmospheric music’ (W7). CM209 also comments on the music of the play.

The part that music plays in ‘The Tempest’ is also stressed by J. H. Walter in his edition, (Heinemann, 1966, p. 812-13). John Stevens (SM45-7) writing of the significance of music in the play, suggests that it is ‘the spiritual reality which, like divine grace, haunts men until they come into harmony with it.’ Professor Lindley gives detailed consideration of the ‘Music, masque and meaning in the Tempest’ in his ‘The Court masque’ 1984, pp. 47-59, and in a chapter in his recent monograph (LS 218-233), and Roger Poole devotes a chapter on the play to ‘Music in The Tempest’ in his ‘Critical essays’, Longman, 1988, p. 53-65. Glynne Wickham has an article ‘Masque and anti-masque in The Tempest’ in Essays and Studies xxviii (1975) 1-14

John Tyree Fain provides Some notes on Ariel’s songs SQ xix (1968) 329-332. Two country dance tunes entitled ‘The Tempest’ appear in RE 103 i (subtitled ‘Ap Shenkin’) and RE 149 iv. 297A, B

MM13 stresses that music would be out of place to open this play. W. H. Auden (AL230) draws attention to a theme discussed by G. Wilson Knight on the ‘opposition’ of trumpet and other music in The Shakespearean Tempest (OUP 1932). Marina has to be able to sing and Ariel, Srephano, Caliban, Trinculo, Juno and Ceres ‘need to show competence in music.’

act scene line Click here to find out more about suggested song
I i 0 A tempestuous noise of thunder and lightening heard
ii 377 Enter Ariel playing and singing, invisible to Ferdinand, 298
377-389 [62]. Song. Come unto these yellow sands…Foot it featly here and there, And, sweet sprites, bear The burden. Hark, hark. {Spirits} {dispersedly within} (OS220) with refrain from other voices ‘Bow, wow’!… Cry ‘cock-a-diddle-dow. (B281) suggests guitar accompaniment. see also WT58. see also Ke292-3
a) uLF115: 1597 DOWLAND ‘Now, O now’ lute song EL LS1: (i 1): 22/ PM ii/ CW274-6 [original anon. as ‘Frog galliard’] (188b)
b) uCM211-3: 1560 Heart’s-ease (281a)
c) uDO182-3 ‘Nutmegs and ginger’; as lute song ۞DO i 15 (70a)
390-8 [Where should this music be? I’th’air or th’earth? It sounds no more; –and sure, it waits upon Some god o’ th’ island… This music crept by me upon the waters Allaying both their fury and my passion, With its sweet air, Thence I have followed it, — Or it hath drawn me rather, But ’tis gone. No, it begins again].
399-407 [63]. Sings FULL FATHOM FIVE. (OS220; cf WT58) with refrain from other voices. 299
Lute song [Gooch 15052] 1611 Robert JOHNSON (had been attrib.to WILSON, who provided an arr. à 3 in Cheerful Ayres 1659) CU12/ PS184/ LF 116-7, 144/ (B241) NA157/ OS223-4/ NC251-3/ CM214-5/ VH12/ EL LS12 (ii 17): 10, realization of basso by Ian Spink/ Jb21/ HH4; ۞Am 16/ ۞BaS7/ ۞BoEs32/ ۞BroS1/ ۞CamS8/ ۞DeC 10/ ۞Ec8/ ۞Eh19/۞Ge19/ ۞KyJ 21/ ۞Lg8/ ۞MgE23/ ۞MgM24/ ۞PaH5/ ۞Ph36/ ۞St8; (B281) Voice + g DS6; melody and words DO 157-9; as lute song ۞DO i 26; voice and unfigured bass . AS157; commentary CS248-9 Instrumental music follows played softly.
408-10 [The ditty does remember my drowned father. This is no mortal business, nor no sound That the earth owes. {Music}. I hear it now above me.]
II i 91 [His word is more than the miraculous harp].
189 Enter Ariel invisible, playing Solemn music 300
a) LF118: BULL Duchess of Brunswick’s Toye: alman ; kF262/ MB ixx 97; rS + k HU12; rA + g BUd 1
b) (B281) 1525 My lady Carey’s *Dompe, lute (RA 58 f44v) attrib. ASTON N5-7/ N&199-200/ CW222; kMB lxvi 37/ RAd3/ FE1/ HM103/ N7-8; ۞OL5; hpchd ۞EmH18/ ۞Mt7; SATB CM369-372; rSS MA15; opening ESI 143
c) (B281) DOWLAND Lachrymae pavan, or any of the 7 pavans (31a)
d) (B281) ‘When gryping grief (282)
e) (B281) ‘O death rock me asleep’ (56a)
301 Music. Re-enter Ariel, invisible (300) 301
304 Sings in Gonzalo’s ear [64]. While you do here snoring lie 302
a) uLF119: 1614 BENNET *Hunt’s up tune; catch à 3: Rb1; uDO451-5 ‘Hunt’s up’ melody and words DO 457-8; as song with cittern ۞DO i 75; consort ۞YF 1
b) (Seng 258/ B281/ Fn43-4 sung to this text): BYRD A Gigge [NB jig a 1] F181/ MB xxvii 22/ BYf5/ Fc 5; ۞Mo ii 21; rSAT Fm7; rS + k Fr6; rA + g BYd 1]
c) uCM216 set to ‘the merry tune’ ‘Sir Eglamour, that Valiant Knight’: tune C275-7/ SB432; (later version ‘The Friar in the well’ CW296-7 ‘The maid peep out at the window’); tune E42/ Eb59/ C273-5/ SB150/ RE27 ii; 41 v/ SC vi/ SCt x 17/ SCg 14; CS276 /MK232 [note that this melody ‘Sir Eglamore’ also appears under that title (368, 373)
322-3 [I heard a humming, and a strange one too, which did awake me]
ii (43, 54) [scurvy tunes]: (sea shanties in bursts of song probably bellowed)
40 Enter Stephano, singing, with a wooden bottle in his hand
41-2 [65]. I shall no more, to sea, 303
a) uLF120 ‘*Fortune my foe’ (182)
b) uCM218 1596 Paggington’s Pound + SATB BB17; tune RE 10 iii/ MK127;/ K52 i; ۞BroP16/ ۞CamP3; à 3 Cosyn ۞MgN8; as consort song (words by Ben Jonson) ۞BaS 14/ ۞MsE i 5; CUTTING as ‘Beckington’s Pound’) [GB-Cu Nn 6 36 f21 as ‘The Jigge’] lute/t RN15; tkPO 5; kJE12; ۞BreW3/ ۞Th15/ ۞YF7; gJR3/ SG21, 58; kF177/ CW 259-60/ RE10; rSA(T) SR 11; kMP f101; tune SB362/ G150; rebec consort ۞Sk7; school performance notes Sk24-29; à 4 PRAETORIUS setting as a ‘Courante’ P123 TB2; Pt i 5; ۞KnK8/ ۞PaD28/ ۞Wt7; as song set to words of ‘Clothier’s Song’ ۞Du24; violin & lute ۞St 15
c) uDO260-2 set to ‘Lustie gallant’ melody and words (64d)
43-4 [This is a very scurvy tune to sing at a man’s funeral: Well, here’s my comfort.] He drinks, then sings
44-54 [66]. The master, the swabber, the boatswain, and I, 304
0 a) uLF120 ‘The Leather bottle’ (drinking song tune) G44/ C ii 514/ SB277/ MK148-9
b) uCM219-220 +rSATB ‘Jolly Driver
c) uDO260-2 set to tune of ‘Lustie gallant’ melody and words; as lute song ۞DO ii 39 (64d)
d) uDO261-2 set to ‘Full fathom five; tune in parody, melody and words ۞DO i 44 (299)
e) N&52 ii Setting by?? JOHNSON? Trace source?
55 [This is a very scurvy tune, too. But here’s my comfort.] He drinks.
177 uCM221-3 12c conductus ‘Orientis partibus’ BL Stowe ms 389 (c1588); arr. rSATB 304A
179-185 Sings {drunkenly} [67]. No more dams I’ll make for fish (howled by Caliban) 305
uDO274-5 tune set to ‘O ye happy dames’ MB1(f3)/ à 4 MBi; as lute song ۞DO i 45
III i 41-2 [Th’harmony of their tongues hath into bondage Brought my too diligent ear]
ii 119–122 [Let us be jocund. Will you troll the *catch You taught me but while-ere?/… Come on Trinculo, let us sing.]
123-5 [68] Sings Flout ’em and cout ’em (catch à 3) MH175 antimasque: pipe and tabor 306
a) uLF121 HILTON Come follow me: catch à 3
b) uCM224 Robert FARNABY Nobodyes jigg (355b)
c) uDO146-7 set to ‘My dame hath in her hatch at home’ round à 3 Rp23; ۞DO i 22
126 [That’s not the tune.] Ariel plays the tune on a tabor and pipe (antimasque) 307
CM224: sopranino recorder or piccolo (355b)
127-9 [What is this same?/ This is the tune of our catch, played by the picture of Nobody]
138-148 [Be not afeard. The isle is full of noises, Sounds and sweet airs, that give delight and hurt not. Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments† Will hum about mine ears…/ This will prove a brave kingdom to me, where I shall have my music for nothing.] †Walls (WP151) suggests lutes, and Sabol (SA p.19) as many as 12 lutes or more! See also comments in AS169-170 and Ke292-3
149 Exit Ariel, playing music
151-2 [The sound is going away. Let’s follow it, and after do our work/… I would I could see this taborer. He lays it on./ Wilt come?]
iii 18 Solemn and strange muksic 308
WT61 implies the use of organ. MH177: perhaps an Elizabethan * fancy played on oboes and recorders. GI 119-120 Prospero ‘on the top’ (of the Music gallery) quoting J C Adams “The staging of ‘The Tempest’” pp. 416-9. See also Ke296-7
a) CU 14/ AS159 PS186-7/ LF123: 1613 à 2 (LM62 33v, 84r) SA114; rSA Z6 ‘The Tempest’ masque, attrib. Robert JOHNSON used in CAMPION’S ‘Squire’s masque’ as antimasque for the winds, but Cutts avers that it was written for the 1613 revival of ‘The Tempest’ (an opinion questioned by Sabol, p. 576) cf SS xi (1958) 60-9; ۞PaH3
b) LF145: à 2 (LM63 f 33v-34r, 84v ) ‘A masque’ SA115 Cutts also attributes to JOHNSON. (SA p.576: used as a dance in an unidentified masque)
c) (B282) 1565 ‘By a bancke as I lay’ three-man song RA (f10 b) 15, 23; à 4 Rd19; CW46-9/ C63/ G29f
d) (B282)/ AS159 [CORKINE] Come live with me (180a)
e) (CA 119/ CM388-392): FARNABY A Masque [not identified] possibly one of these: i). kF198/ MB xxiv 31; à 5 BN43/ SA238; ۞Du12 ii). kF199 / MB xxiv 32/ FAd4; consort à 4 SZ31/ SA237 as ‘Mascarada’; iii). kF209/ MB xxiv 33 which is an elaboration of ‘Cuperaree’ lt(BO 157 30r-40r) or Grays In [*masque] the first’ à 2 (LM50 28v-29r, 80v) SA 101/ TM7/ WP 135/ LMw i 7/C328; ۞BroP 5/ ۞CamM2/ ۞Hf 15/ ۞Hp 10/ ۞Wt9; rS/T + g RD13 as ‘Allemande’; à 4 LMh19; rS + k LMb i 3; à 5 (BN28) as ‘Der Rothschencken Tantz’ SA274; à 6 rSAATTB TE20/ CJ 1/ SA273; and as ‘Almande’ in kMP22 arr. FARNABY ‘A maske’ kF209; arr. for solo instrument and continuo LMw i 7
f) (CA 119): BYRD A Pavane and Galliard [perhaps that which Caldwell recommends, the splendid set in A minor (CDe125) also Robert Speight in William Poel and the Elizabethan revival 1954 played by treble and bass viols with virginals: kF252-3/ LN 14-15/ MB xxvii 14a-b/ BYf 13a-b; viols & lute ۞ChF6-7/ ۞Mo vi 7-8; rSATB BYk 3; rA + g BYd 2]
18-19 [What harmony is this? My good friends, hark!/ Marvellous sweet music.]
Enter spirits in several strange shapes, bringing in a …banquet, and dance about it… He…vanishres in thunder. Then, to soft music, enter the spirits again, and dance with mocks and mows,.. NN65: possibly the music for 308 still playing here 309
à 2 MH177: a dance piece in contrapuntal style probably scored for recorders (CA 119): FARNABY A Coranto [F228/ FAd 16, now attrib. HOOPER]
96-99 [Methought the billows spoke and told me of it; The winds did sing it to me; and the thunder, That deep and dreadful organ-pipe, pronounced The name of Prospero. It did *bass my trespass.]
IV i 44-48 [Before you can say, ‘Come’ and ‘Go’] NN65: possibly alluding to a song
58{-100} Soft music. {A masque}. Enter Iris (entertainment) cf WP152’ Lorenzo Biancolli notes this ‘musical drama within a drama’ in this ‘ballet of Ceres evoked by Prospero’ BI253-4
a) (B282-3) ‘By a bank’ instrumentally 310 (308c)
b0) (NN65) ‘A masque’: (LM63 f33r-4r, 84) SA115 (308b)
101 {Music. Juno descends to the stage}
106-117 [69]. they sing. Honour, riches, marriage, blessing. Masque OS220 presumably with instrumental accompaniment. LF123 viol or recorder consort {masque} 311
a) (B283): GILES ‘Triumph now’ (adapted as song and instrumental) (21c)
b) uCM225-9 adapted from ‘Tread Juno’s steps who list’ + rSATB [GB-Lbl Add. MS. 15117 as a lute song: facsim BL i (15v) 26; WA vi 18]
c) uDO203-4 set to melody of ‘In Crete’ (211)
118 [This is a most majestic vision, and Harmonious charmingly.] cf CS187. here a masque with ‘soft music’? (309) 312
133, 137-8 Enter certain nymphs [And these fresh nymphs encounter every one In country footing] 313
Enter certain reapers…They join with the nymphs in a graceful dance… BR *branle or *hay. cf CS189
a) (CU59: 196) Robert JOHNSON ‘The Tempest’ masque dance (308a)
b) LF125 1599 PHILIPS bcM9 *Galliard to Philips Pavan ۞DoH5 ii (1292)
c) (B283) 1588 ARBEAU Branle du Haut Barrois (104b)
d) SA64/ WP134; kSA288/ GE 161 Haymakers’ masque
e) (CA119) MORLEY Lavolto (La *Volta) bcM 21; ۞BaL9/ ۞BaS 29/ ۞BroS31/ ۞Eh2/ ۞EmR20/ ۞MgM 18/ ۞Sf21; arr. McGowan ۞Sf1; for song arr. see 261c; steps (after Arbeau) DI iii 45-7; ۞DI iii 18; virginals arr. Byrd ۞MgM 19
f) (DLC) COPERARIO The Nymphs dance, antimasque à 2 (LM53: 17r,71v) SA104/ LMw 9; rA + g LMz 7; à 5 as ‘Mascharad der Edelfrawen (BN10) rSSATB CJ4/ SA269; ۞KnM10/ ۞Wt22
g) (CU14) The Temple: 3 dances 1613, ascribed to Robert JOHNSON
i) Entry dance: [‘Reapers’ dance’], à 2: (LM39: f25r) SA90; à 5 (BN 21) rSSATB; CJ7/ SA264
ii) The 2nd of The Temple: Main dance, à 5 (BN26); in Brade’s 1617 collection as ‘Der Irlender Tantz’ CJ8/ SA265; à 2 (LM40 f25v) SA91; à 4 (SZ32) as ‘Mascarada’ SA266;
iii) The 3rd of The Temple: Exit dance, à 5 (BN22) as ‘Auffzug zu Greenwitsch‘ CJ9/ SA267; à 2: (LM41 f26r) SA92; à 5 (SZ44) as ‘Ballet’ SA268
h) (DLC) Volt (La Volta) (1526A)
175-8 [Then I beat my tabor; At which, like unbacked colts they prick’d their ears, Advanced their eyelids, lifted up their noses As they smelt music. So I charmed their ears…At last I left them I’th’ filthy-mantled pool…dancing up to th’ chins…] CS193 compares MoV V i 69-88 q.v.
221-2 [O King Stephano…look what a wardrobe here is for thee!] DO248-250 (248) 314
253 A noise of hunters is heard.
V i 51-54 [when I have required Some heavenly music–which even now I do—To work mine end upon their senses that This airy charm is for,]
57{-84} Solemn music LF126: probably continues to sound until he sends Ariel off (MM97) tune played on positive organ 315
LF126: 1588 ARBEAU Pavane ‘Belle qui tiens’ (151c)
57-8 [A solemn air, and the best comforter To an unsettled fancy Cure thy brains… For you are spell-stopped]
87 Ariel sings…
cf. ML Jy 1954 xxxv 3, pp, 185-200 and Apr 1955 xxxvi 2, 110-125 [Gooch 15052] CU 13/ LF127, 147/ HH8/ S158/ VH11: 1613 Robert JOHNSON/ John WILSON (wrongly attrib.) à 3; OS 225-6/ NC251-3; ۞Ph38. Spink realization as lute song: EL LS 12 (ii 17): 11; Km33; with unfigured bass AS158/ CS253; ۞Am17/ ۞BaS6/ ۞BoEs3b/ ۞BroS2/ ۞CamS9/ ۞DeC6/ ۞DeS4/ ۞DO i 74/ ۞Ec3/ ۞Eh20/ ۞Ge 17/ ۞KyJ 1/ ۞Lg9/ ۞MgE 11, 24/ ۞MgM25/ ۞PaH4/ ۞Ph38/ ۞St 1/ ۞WS4; voice+g DS5; SB + lute Jb 1; ۞DeS4; voice & bass + rSATB CM230-2; rSA Z5; tune and words DO454-6; tune MK310

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