This incorporates an attempt to follow up any kind of musical allusion in the play texts and stage directions which relate to dance and other musical forms. The examples chosen to represent musical forms are mainly by Elizabethan and Jacobean Court composers, often anonymous settings, here singled out for such qualities as concision and memorability. It should not prove a hindrance to their performance that pieces in this repertoire based on tunes and motifs from the popular music of the time for the most part was written for virginals, a gentle instrument unsuited to the stage and certainly inappropriate in open air performances. Much of this fine repertoire has been adapted for consorts of recorders or other instruments, and selection of titles for inclusion in this survey has often been related to the material drawn to my attention by the enthusiasm of the compilers of anthologies.

Works cited where a composer is not given are anonymous; in general, it is such pieces, especially those from the lute books, which will often prove most apt for use as stage music.

Full bibliographical citations (together with an incipit in musical notation) including those for related music in alternative settings are to be found in the preceding play survey within the serial number sequence 1-417. If a music suggestion has not been allocated to a particular point in a play, bibliographical information is given here in the NOTES, and if there is more than one numerical reference, see under the serial number in bold type within square brackets.

Included here also are various types of signals that may be encountered, as for instance those which might lend themselves to distinguish one particular faction or ‘house’ from another as they occur in the course of the plays.

see under word following the asterisk for detailed entry in these NOTES.



tabor a small side drum associated with rustic music making, see *pipe and tabor
Tarlton, Richard see *clowns as musicians
theophanies see *supernatural effects
three-man songs (‘freeman songs’) see *catches
Tinternell a dance which Mabel Dolmetsch suggests is a corruption of ‘Tarantella’ (DF 101); and among a group of pieces entitled ‘The Long Grounds’ there is a ‘Tinternell’ for bandora (DL223) and a version for cittern is in (CC f19v-20r) tCCp 11; kSA335; lute WM ii 67c; steps SA p.546 1478
‘the tongs and the bones’ (MND IV i 28) rustic music provided perhaps by rebec, knackers, triangle
tourdion a *galliard danced with the feet close to the ground (ARe 57) see *basse danse
CAROSO includes a tordiglione (large tourdion) in both books (1581 and 1600) for which the steps are reconstructed in DH23-27 with the 12 bar phrase of his lute setting amalgamated with the keyboard piece by BYRD ‘The Bells’ DH28; ۞BroL3/ ۞DH3; examples DI iii 4, 1 Tordion and Toudion d’Albart (191c) 1479
toy(e) Van den Borren notes that this is no well defined dance form (cf *jig) and that the five pieces so called in the Fitzwilliam Book in spite of their differing rhythms have a ‘common character of playfulness and of agreeable and mocking simplicity’ (V304). The significance in the present context is that their style is ‘straightforward, with the minimum of contrapuntal elaboration’ (G6 xix 104) and therefore ‘toys’ could well lend themselves effectively to the stage.
Examples which have been recommended are ‘A Toye’ F193/ Fa 15/ RV17; gNR31/ Fd7; 2 lutes RS10; 2gFe 4; rSA Fb 1; this piece exists almost unaltered in 12/4 as a ‘Corranto’ F204/ Fc 1; in Fa 15 Dart conflates the two versions 1480
two further anonymous ‘Toys’, F268 rSATB Ft 1 and, 1481
especially effective for stage use, the first measure of another, F263 unusually in 4/4 time. 1482
‘The Duchess of Brunswick’s Toy’ by BULL F262 is otherwise classed as an alman; (300a) 1483
and another ‘Fitzwilliam’ trawl comes up with ‘A Toye’ by FARNABY F270/ MB xiv 28 (29b) 1484
For lute there a some light and airy bagatelles: one by DOWLAND is the altogether delightful (PD162-3) ‘The Shoemaker’s wife’ D58; ۞BreD8/ ۞CmD x 15/ ۞Ex 4/ ۞Ld ii 7/ ۞Mf20/ ۞OD iv 11, which is short, jolly and rhythmically stimulating. 1485
Other fine examples are by CUTTING, the Toy ‘Over the broome, Bessy’; (135c) 1486
and ‘The Squirrel’s Toy’ (CH f77) no. 39 in Martin Long’s list; LU38/ CHr 11; ۞Md31; gDU7/ SG57. (480) 1487
The incipit shown represents one of the eight Toys included in the Cambridge lute ms. (CH f80v) CF20; gNR4/ Sm33. 1488
and a number from the Pickering lute book are included in Heringman’s lute recital from (PI 16, 30. 32, 33. 38. 49 and 69) ۞HeP4 tracks 22, 5, 23. 1, 2, 25 and 3 1488A-G
and another is a version of ‘Barafostus Dream’ (PI f24); (201b) 1489
and for two lutes is ‘Drewries accords’ (in BA48-9 as ‘A Fancy’) (1066) 1490
and there are as many as four for solo lute in the ROBINSON Schoole of Musicke 1603 RS15, 19, 20 and 22; examples ۞W10, 13 1491-4
Another ‘Toy’ for 2 lutes is given in 2gSTg 1 1494A
A particularly succinct ‘Toy’ in G major comprises just four bars MB lv 43 1495
Another anonymous sprightly ‘Toy’ is set for consort rSSATB BC ii 16. 1496
‘The Ape’s Dance at the Temple’ appears as ‘A Toy’ in the Drexel ms (GE p. 28) (486) 1497
Trenchmore English country dance whose origins are discussed in BS309; tune RE18. Claude Simpson describes this lively dance form which employs a fast tripping rhythm (SB p718) as the source of the Jacobean social dance which Baskervill characterizes as a popular country dance distinguished by its stamping step and *capers (BS362).
This popular piece exists in a song setting SB471/ CW 224-7/ K94 / G43 as ‘Willie, prithie go to bed’ CW225 (with the refrain ‘With a hey, trolly lolly lolly lo’) having appeared in two settings as rip-roaring ‘*freeman’ songs à 4 in Ravenscroft Rd21 and as ‘Tomorrow the fox will come to town’ Rd20/ CW224-5; ۞A11/ ۞Cw8 i/ ۞CwL8/ ۞Sk23; school performance notes Sk52-3; lute (PI 51v); tune SB471/ RE 18 ii (823, 944) 1498
Note pieces in the Lodge lute book (LO f10-10v) WM ii 34/kMP11/SA313; ۞OH23, 1499
and a lute duet (FS 10 ii-10 vi/ LO 22: f12v/ GB-Cu MS Dd iii 12v-13) WM ii 35 which appear to be other ‘Trenchmore’ tunes; this is now attributed to John JOHNSON, a composer who especially favoured this duet medium. 1500
There is an allusion in one of WEELKES Ayres and fantastic sprites à 3 (TTB) 1608 ‘Come sirrah, Jack ho! Fill the pipe once more, my braines daunce the *Trenchmore’ EMS13: 6/ OBEM II/ S&B W80 1501
tripping measure ‘the triplex is a good tripping measure’ TN V i 39, see *galliard
trombone Thurston Dart suggests the use of this instrument to represent the *supernatural, noting the little aural difference to the *sackbut
trumpet; tucket the use of trumpet has been limited to the announcement of royalty or their delegates ‘Trumpets have always stood apart, socially as well as musically, from other instruments because of their association with royalty and ceremonial occasions’ (NOHM iv 818). Lesser nobility could be heralded with *cornetts and *drums to distinguish their subordinate rank. Nevertheless, trumpets and drums do sometimes appear on the stage for flourishes and marches.
Manifold lists five contexts in which they would be called for (MM39) and distinguishes between their use for military signals (*charge, tucket) and the s.d. ‘trumpets sound’ where the instrument’s brilliant tone quality is especially relevant for its implication of power (MM35), e.g. Cor V v 0 where John Long suggests ‘Le simple cavalicot cantus pomposus’; (105a) 1502
and in H5 which he indicates as the conventional signal of three trumpet calls announcing the opening of the drama (LH95).
The stage directions indicating the use of trumpets are legion and, on occasion, specific as ‘a great flourish of trumpets’ in Oth IV ii 165. Trumpet is much in evidence in the last scene of KL. Long also gives some detail on ceremonial use of trumpets and drums in marches and processions.
There are a number of pieces in which trumpets seem to be blowing, including the majestic ‘Queene Elizabeth, her Galliard’ for lute by `DOWLAND D41; (626, 872, 1355) 1503
the Battle music attributed to BYRD from the Nevell Virginal book has a number of pieces especially, ‘March to the fight,’ featuring trumpet calls, (528) 1504
as well as the pavan-like ‘Soldiers’ summons’ with its wistful drum and trumpet figures; (521) 1505
and there is even a piece there entitled ‘Trumpetts’ (524) 1506
Another anonymous piece for keyboard is similarly entitled, ‘Trowmppettus’ MB lxvi 34; His Majesty’s Cornetts and Sackbutts recording ۞Hc4 & ۞Hc2 on regal organ. 1507
In the search for the ‘robust and sonorous’, Cathy Gaskell notes these qualities in her collection of three pieces of consort music à 5 and 6 by PARSONS spOL133 (1985): ‘De la Court’ à 5 rSSATB; viols MB xliv 34; ۞PaM13/ ۞RoE16; (946) 1508
a consort à 6 rAATTBB entitled ‘The Song called Trumpets’ (here, no words seem to have come down to us, though Paul Doe has noted its possible hunting associations MB xliv 70/ Partita edition ed. Bethel & Murrow (1966); ۞Hs28/ ۞RoE4. Jordi Savall finds this ‘a remarkable piece that evokes the antiphonal fanfares and simple harmonies of Renaissance trumpet bands, though clearly not written for trumpets (647, 947) 1509
Savall includes in his recording of Elizabethan consorts a further very impressive ‘In nomine’ à 7 MB xliv 75; ۞Hs27 and QuintEssential in their collection, an extremely dignified one à 6 ۞Q6 1510
There is a dance pair by BULL nicknamed ‘Trumpet pavan and galliard’ MB xix 128 (pavan F13, galliard in Cosyn Virginal Book) 1511-2
One or more trumpets have been suggested would be effective to the popular Elizabethan tune ‘Why aske you?’ kF161/ Fa 19; gFd4; 2gFe; rAA/TT Fs6, a tune also set by Farnaby for virginals (1260) 1513
Though graceful as a pavan should be, the ALISON ‘De la tromba *pavan’ has a certain exhilaration as the title implies, and been suggested for use as a sennet, for certainly near the end there is a certain martial quality (38a, 268, 1264) 1514 (1546)
The tucket is a trumpet call, (its etymology from ‘toccata’ is onomatopoeic, a long drawn out fanfare, a *flourish being less considerable, WT60), which may be used as identifying the family or military source (e.g. H5 IV ii 35); ‘I know him by his trumpet’ or ‘What trumpet’s that?’ ToA I i 94, 247, Oth IV i 216. Stevens also suggests the call could be fairly lengthy (SM14)
Two short examples which last between 12-18 seconds and 15 seconds approximately are given by Charlton (CM417) the second from a French source; 1515-6
while Naylor (N202) includes an Italian tucket 1517
see also HW36 for graphic reconstruction of their use in the presentation of a play
tuning instruments allusions include ToS III i 22-5; TG IV ii 60 as well as figuratively in KL IV iii 16, R2 I iii 162 and T&C I iii 110
Turkeyloney see *tourdion



‘Ut, Re, Mi, Fa, So, La’ allusion KL I ii 137: the hexachord, the first six notes of the major scale, rising 3 tones, a semitone and 2 tones; this and other scale patterns being referred to as the ‘gamut’ of which much is made in the music lesson featured in ToS III i. There is an anonymous 32 bar unelaborated piece in The Hirsch lute book printed in LU24; 1518
but using the hexachord as a basis for elaboration, there are fine keyboard examples: one in four part counterpoint is by SWEELINCK F118 which opens with the hexachord F G A Bb C D in the bass line (cf Fn107). 1519
Van den Borren discusses the scholastic pieces in this genre by BULL and BYRD (V316-28), and Cathy Gaskell notes the rhythmic and chromatic interest in ‘Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la’ no 1 of BULL à propos her transcription à 4 originally as no 3 of 3 Fantasias from The Fitzwiliam virginal Book [F(38, 108, and) 51 with its rather restless effect/ BUk 10]; violin + treble viol + 2b-v ۞ChF5; rAATB OL198; 1520
and BYRD has an ‘Ut, re, mi, fa sol, la’ (with final G) MB xxviii / F101/ BY9. 1521
For lute, Robinson’s Schoole of Musicke 1603 has an example ‘Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la: 9 sundry ways’ RS24; 1522
and there are number of *catches and canons in Ravenscroft’s books making much use of such extended scale patterns (617-9) 1523-5
Willi Apel describes the ‘wayward fancy’ by FARNABY (Fn99) ‘His Humour’ F196 as an excellent Elizabethan dance, ‘whimsical miniature picture of his musical mentality’ including an ‘almost satirical allusion to the pompous ostentation of the *hexachord composers’ (NOHM iv 635) (147, 1303) 1526



variation sets see Introduction and *divisions, *grounds
viol the *consort of viols, the standard instrumentation for ensemble playing in Elizabethan times has an abundant and impressive repertoire, though the generally rather serious quality of such forms as the *Fantasia and many *Pavans and Galliards would not lend themselves to stage use, yet this survey has attempted to seek out examples which might be appropriate. A viol consort would be particularly effective when such directions as ‘Music within’ are encountered.
A full ‘chest’ might consist of two trebles, two tenors and two bass viols, roughly equivalent to the later violins, violas and cellos. For solo rather than consort playing, there were variants: the ‘*division’ viol, a small sized bass, and another bass is the ‘lyra’ viol (see also reference under ‘*sweet music’). The normal bass viol could also ‘play the lyra way’ that is, producing chords by double (and triple) stopping. An interesting allusion to the instrument occurs in Per I i 81 likening the viol to the female human form (W10).
Ian Woodfield notes (G6 xix 798) how ‘by the end of the 16th century viol playing (like madrigal singing) had become part of the amateur tradition of music making in the home’.
virginals as Dart notes, the plays first produced at Court, being under cover, would be ‘more delicately musicked’ so that the harpsichord or virginals would have been employed, whereas the portable *lute,*cittern or *pandora could be whisked away if rain threatened in public (open-air) theatres. Rather obvious sexual innuendo on the use of the word is encountered as in TNK III iii 33-4 and in WT I ii 127-8 ’virginalling upon his palm’ is what every would-be keyboard player does.
vision scenes see *supernatural effects
volta lively dance of Provençal origin for two persons, in fast triple time (NOHM iv 556), a variety (V305) or elaboration (MM 143) of the *galliard; a galliard with a *caper (Fn53) (1565 ‘to the sound of cymbals’). Earliest British allusion traced is dated 1534. SA p. 17 has a short description.
H5 III v 32-3 ‘teach lavoltas high and swift’
T&C IV iv 85-5 ‘I cannot sing Nor heel the high lavolt’
Mabel Dolmetsch describes it as ‘a galliard danced so fast that only two steps could be squeezed in in each bar, and with a high leap every other bar (*caper)’ (DF 129-132; steps also in B232) and Jane Gingell gives a description and steps in TR p71-3. see also Robert Donington in G7 xxv 888-9.
Arbeau characterizes the dance as a kind of galliard which it resembles in fitting energetic and even violent movements into a rather slow beat in triple time (description, tune and steps ARe 119-123; ARe252/ ARb 106; rSA ARd 4; ۞BroA4 v; sqARi 6). 1527
RE8 vi offers a ‘Volt’ (La Volta) whose catchy melody is noy easily forgotten 1527A
Among a host of other attractive and lively tunes and instrumental settings are the Volte à 4 in PHALÈSE 1571 PG3; 1528
the lute piece ‘Volt’ (FD) gNR 11 which the editor thought to be originally Italian; 1529
and a familiar volta tune appears in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book F201; à 4 CM316-7; rS + k HU7, which Carl Dolmetsch includes in an anthology set for rSSA/TA/T DP ii 7; 1530
That same collection has an even better known Volta (MP85v, as ‘ye revolto’), DP i 1; rS/A/T + g RD17; this was later set by leading composers, which David Lumsden includes as one of two lute versions in his anthology LU30-1, the first being rather simplified which should prove ideal for stage use. There is a fine keyboard setting by BYRD ‘La volta’ [G1] F155/ MB xxviii 91/ BYf 1/ RV 14/ DH1, 51-52; with steps arr. by N. Chaplin BYe4; steps alone DH50; ۞DH no 11; ۞Mo v 2; lute t(BO 13r 39); ۞BroL 11/ ۞BroS31/ ۞OH12; rS + k HU 11/ Fr11; vn + t-fl + b-v + lute PE50-1; small consort ۞Mh13 ii; and a ‘Volte’ for consort à 5 by PRAETORIUS P210 takes up the famous tune after two repeated 4-bar phrases, the first opening with a six-note rising sequence Pm v 5; ۞NeP15 i; rSSATB TR13; à 2 rSS/T RC i 12; steps DI iii ; rS/AS/A/TA/TB RC i 43; gPw 4; the second two-bar phrase appear to be that used in ‘The French Levalto’ (‘Volte de France’) lute (Th383) CM365-368 ‘Galliard variant’, tLSoc C24: 8; tune SB148/ CW232-3; steps SA p. 547/ DF129-132; rS + k HU 1;. ۞BaL19; 2 violins, treble viol, 2 bass viol ۞EmP9 ii; 1531
Van den Borren describes the two voltas by BYRD as being among the most exquisite dance pieces in the Fitzwilliam Book (V306), that is: the F155 described above;
and ‘La volta L[ady?] Morley’ [G2] kF159/ MB xxviii 90/ BYf 8; ۞Mo v 12; band ۞Mh13 i 1532
In the highly individual La volta’ in MORLEY Consort Lessons the graceful yet challenging rhythm and tone colour combine to produce a haunting effect on the listener bcM21 (313e) 1533
Altogether there are 48 ‘voltes’ in PRAETORIUS Terpsichore, including P210 (see above); (1531)
P223 à 5; ۞NeP14 iv which has a superbly haunting character, 1534
the plaintive yet pretty P243 à 4 suited perhaps to a pastoral context; rSATB Pt i 10; ۞NeP 14 ii; 4 recorders, lute and tabor ۞EmP9 i (1350) 1535
and the ‘Volte de tambour’ à 5 P199; ۞NeP 14 i; also in a setting for consort à 4 + continuo by SIMPSON SZ23; (1447) 1536
from his expertly written and tuneful (G6 xvii 332) dance collection Taffel-Consort of 1621 which has two further voltas, SZ11, his own composition; 1537
and a spirited (PD 373) Volta à 4 + continuo which in Simpson is attributed to DOWLAND though Poulton considers this doubtful SZ39/ DA27; ۞CmD xii 2/ ۞KnM20: 1. 1538
The ballad tune ‘Light o’ love’ became known as the ‘English volta’ (236) 1539



waits the town watchmen who marked the night hours with musical calls. Immortalised in the persons of Dogberry, Verges and the ‘good men and true of The Watch’ in Mu. It is nice to think this lot would have been experts on the outdoor instruments waits were wont to play: the *hautboys (otherwise, ‘wait-pipes’ or *shawms), *sackbuts (trombones), fife (high pitched flute, modern equivalent piccolo) and drums. Trumpets were associated with the highest ranking aristocracy. Some music for the waits’ calls is suggested in PE26
‘Walsingham’ Naylor writes that there are few more beautiful melodies in the world of sound, this dating back to 1538, and Van den Borren writes of its legendary charm (V215). Tradition has linked it to the particular dramatic needs of Ham IV v 20. Among the many settings alluded to at that point in the survey, there are simple and effective versions for lute by John JOHNSON, and HOLBORNE, while the short statement of this haunting melody is beautifully set by CUTTING, or, if more elaboration is needed, the opening statement in the fine setting by BYRD could be used. Of the two pieces employing the melody by DOWLAND, ‘A galliard’ D31; ۞CmD ix 41 ; is particularly effective (which Poulton recommends (PD170) in preference to the lute setting of ‘Walsingham’ D67 (44, 869) 1540
weather see *seasons
wedding music wedding masques occur in Tem and As followed by a ‘Wedding Song’ (310-314, 21-22)
The most prestigious occasions for which known repertoire was created were the Continental wedding festivities featuring a rich musical repertoire were those of Cosimo I, Duke of Florence in 1539 (described by Andrew C. Minor and Bonner Michel in A Renaissance Entertainment. Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, 1968) and of Wilhelm V of Bavaria to Renée de Lorraine at Munich in 1568 for which Lassus organized the music.
The wedding in Florence of Grand Duke Ferdinando I de Medici to Christine de Lorraine in 1589 was followed by a fortnight of festivities. These included a ballo by CAVALIERI which became a standard on which were based a number of pieces with such titles as ‘Ballo del Gran Duca de Toscana’, a setting by BÉSARD ۞PaD20; a piece by ZANETTI ‘Aria del Gran Duca Ferdinando di Toscana,’ a consort à 4 in LPM DM6; tune rA CT47. It exists in a version à 4 + continuo by the ex-patriot PHILIPS as ‘Aria del Gran Duca’ à 5 LPM EML 104; ۞PaC6; ‘Alta Carretta’ for lute by Livio LUPI 1607 arr. rSATB TR20 and a set of keyboard variations on the theme by SWEELINCK ‘Ballo del granduca’ SWn 1/ SWm 65 1541
Another piece which is documented as having been performed during the festivities (cf Iain Fenlon Man and Music: The Renaissance, 1989, pp. 282-3) is ‘Aria della Battaglia’ à 8 by PADOVANO in which sackbuts (trombones) and hautboys (shawms) might well have been employed. .(516) 1542
Thurston Dart has traced the tune of the ‘Italian rant’ which appeared in The English Dancing master; E31/ Eb 148; ۞Wn9; had its origin in ‘Fuggi, fuggi, fuggi da questo cielo’ which became known as ‘Cecilia pavan’, a tune used in a setting by ZANETTI ‘La Mantovana’ (Ballo di Mantova) a piece which featured in the wedding festivities for Prince Francesco Gonzaga and Margherita di Savoie in 1608 1543
A suggested sequence of pieces effective for a wedding ceremony could be
ALISON Bachelar’s delight (607) 1544
PHILIPS Pavan in G (1291) 1545
ALISON De la tromba pavan (38a) 1546
BYRD My Lord of Oxenford’s Masque (219b) 1547
A depiction of the wedding banquet for Sir Henry Unton has the six members of a *broken consort playing the instruments specified in Morley’s Consort Lessons 1599. See also *bells, *instruments
Welsh motifs a number of these are to found in connection with Cym and 1H4 (q.v.). (51a, 51b, 52)
There is a ‘Wales hornpipe’ for lute (931) 1548
P, Kinney (G7 xxvii 14) notes that tunes used for the singing of Welsh poetry included such pieces popular in England as The *Spanish pavan. see also Title index
Whitsun morris allusion H5 II iv 25 see *May games, *morris
Wilson, Jack the minstrel who played Baltasar in Mu
Wind horns as a stage direction, see *horns
witches see introduction to Mac, and under *Scottish motifs (155, 159-162, 353a, 415a, 1458-9)
‘within’ players not visible to audience, see *‘Music’ in stage directions
wrest harp tuning key. allusion T&C III iii







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