This incorporates an attempt to follow up any kind of musical allusion in the play texts and stage directions which relate to dance and other musical forms. The examples chosen to represent musical forms are mainly by Elizabethan and Jacobean Court composers, often anonymous settings, here singled out for such qualities as concision and memorability. It should not prove a hindrance to their performance that pieces in this repertoire based on tunes and motifs from the popular music of the time for the most part was written for virginals, a gentle instrument unsuited to the stage and certainly inappropriate in open air performances. Much of this fine repertoire has been adapted for consorts of recorders or other instruments, and selection of titles for inclusion in this survey has often been related to the material drawn to my attention by the enthusiasm of the compilers of anthologies.

Works cited where a composer is not given are anonymous; in general, it is such pieces, especially those from the lute books, which will often prove most apt for use as stage music.

Full bibliographical citations (together with an incipit in musical notation) including those for related music in alternative settings are to be found in the preceding play survey within the serial number sequence 1-417. If a music suggestion has not been allocated to a particular point in a play, bibliographical information is given here in the NOTES, and if there is more than one numerical reference, see under the serial number in bold type within square brackets.

Included here also are various types of signals that may be encountered, as for instance those which might lend themselves to distinguish one particular faction or ‘house’ from another as they occur in the course of the plays.

see under word following the asterisk for detailed entry in these NOTES.


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Q

quadran pavan and galliard, i.e. employing a B natural (in major mode)
There are many settings of this motif, such as that included the Barley lute book 1596 featuring both a Quadran pavan and galliard BB22-3; 1361-2
Morley’s Consort Lessons for broken consort open with a ‘Quadran pavan and galliard’ by ALISON; (273a, 1293; 274a, 1294) 1363-4
the Fitwilliam virginal book has a pair by BULL F31, F33/ MB xix 127a and 127d. 1365-6
There is a Quadran paven alone for lute (Dtc MS D l 21/ii p.88. DL 17) attributed to COTTON which Sabol includes among the Social Dance of the Inns of Court SA333; treble alone SA350) for which the steps are set out in SA p. 546. 1367
see *pavan and galliard pairs, and *passamezzo moderno
‘Qui passa’ see *Chi passa


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R

recorders a recorder consort is a valued alternative to the chest of *viols or *broken consort, and the tone quality is particularly effective in conveying other-worldly effects — e.g. the stage direction ‘still *music’ — and can be especially effective in deepening the solemn atmosphere for a mourning ritual Cf MM69-71. Praetorius writes ‘The whole range of recorders, especially the five largest kinds,… give a very soft sweet and pleasant harmony, especially in rooms and chambers’ (Lord 102).
The recorder ensemble is invaluable because the simple instruments which form it produce a tone quality which is entirely appropriate to the period, whereas the other characteristic instruments, *cornetts, *shawms (‘hautboys’) and *viols, will not be found in the average present-day household. Moreover modern editions of all kinds of Elizabethan music adapted for use by recorder ensemble are readily available (in particular from Oriel, Schott, LPM, Moeck, OUP, Universal editions, all well represented in this survey; see KEY).
It has been the aim here to trawl the rich keyboard (*virginals) repertoire, in particular for pieces with motifs based on popular tunes of the time, tracing adaptations for recorder ensemble (and other instrumental groups) where possible, while some pieces not available in the format required will perhaps lend themselves to transcription.
Christopher Wilson suggests descant recorder is suggestive of a shepherd’s pipe (W8-9).
Richard Griscom and David Lasocki suggest contexts in which recorders find their place: to represent ‘The *Music of the Spheres’ and to express love, whether *supernatural or mortal (The Recorder: a research and information guide. 2nd ed. 2003, p 45.) See also the articles by Lasocki in American Recorder 25 no 1 (Feb. 1934) 3-10 ‘The Recorder in Elizabethan and Caroline Theater’. and no 3 (Aug) 91-100 and no 4 (Nov) 131-5 ‘The Recorder consort at the English Court 1540-1673’.
Christopher Welch has elaborated on the involvement of the recorder by Shakespeare in Ham III ii ‘Hamlet and the recorder’ Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 28 (1901-2) 105-37
In MND V i 122 Hyppolyta likens Peter Quince’s delivery of The Prologue to the Mechanicals’ play of Pyramus and Thisby to a child on the recorder, ‘a sound, but not in government’ (familiar to present day passers-by at some school playgrounds).
regal see organ
retreat as a stage direction, Norton notes that it appears three times alone, and 16 times together with ‘alarms and excursions’. N 165-6, 175 CM417: 5 ‘Retreat’ from Rogers Virginal Book which last 6 seconds is here adapted for 2 trumpets and drums. See also *battle music (529) 1368
revels the courtly (main) proceedings of the masque following the formal *masque and anti- masque dances; examples are from Jonson’s Oberon 1611 where Prince Harry and Queen Anne danced the ‘*branle de Poitou’, (23b) 1369
followed by ‘Harry’s Galliard’ kSA304 (and/or kSA409 which Sabol remarks has a richer bass) 1370
Robin there are a number of ballad tunes – some related to each other — and many ballads with ‘Robin’ in the title usually alluding to `Robin Hood, noting also that ‘Sweet Robin’(۞ 11 i) was the nickname of Queen Elizabeth’s favourite, Lord Robert Dudley (see S76-7 and SB p.59-64 for detailed source lists). Naylor considers the setting by FARNABY ‘Bonny Sweet Robin’ F128 to be outstanding (Fn88) (48a) 1371
and an attractive anonymous dance for lute in duple time is ‘Robin Hoode’ 1559; (FD f5) WM ii 19 1372
another fine lute piece not mentioned in the survey is in 6/8, ‘Robin Hood’s dance’ which appears in the Skeaping anthology as ‘Robin Hood and the poacher’ (opening ‘Bold Arthur…’), performance notes Sk54-7; à 4 CM382-3; ۞Sk25; rSATB + g 1373
There is a ‘Robin Hood’s dance’ tune given in RE15 b 1373A
For other titles and first lines not beginning with the name ‘Robin…’ see under that name in the Title index
Rogero, Ruggiero an instrumental bass pattern, see *ground (120c) 1374
Roland, Rowland or ‘Lord Willobies welcome home’ One of the most popular tunes of the Elizabethan period; of the many settings, those of BYRD for virginals and of DOWLAND for lute are outstanding;. Of Dowland’s setting, Diana Poulton notes that it has ‘an extremely simple statement of the melody without any artifice whatever’ (cf PD168-70); this would seem to make it the obvious choice for use on stage (203a) 1375
Romanesca see *ground (281c, 740, 759) 1376
round dance; ronde; roundel dance in a ring in 6/8 with steps in which men and women alternate.
There are allusions in A&C II vii to ‘Egyptian bacchanals’ there as a drunken round dance (133)
and in MND II ii 1 ‘Come, now a roundel and a fairy song’ where MM144 suggests the *hay. (23a)
First English allusion to the dance is traced to 1513. From Henry VIII’s time comes ‘Short mesure off My Lady Wynkfylds Rownde’ which has been considered on stylistic grounds to be by ASTON RAd4/ MB lxvi 38; k۞EmH17/ ۞Mt3; 1377
French and Dutch rondes from mid 16th century are in common time (MM144), for instance the set of SUSATO Rondes à 4, those which are in that collection and in modern editons include
no 1 ‘Pourquoy’ a most haunting piece: rSATB SU i 19; rS/A/T + g RD14; and reprise SU i 5; ۞YC10: 2; 1378-9
no 2 ‘Mon ami’ SU i 20; ۞EmR4; bqSUj 4; 1380
no 7 ‘Il estoit une fillette’ SU i 24; rS/AATB BC i 22; rA CT5; ۞Cl 13 i 7 (this also styled a pavan as no. 13 in the Moderne publication Musique de joi); 1381
no 9 Ronde SU I 26; rATTB SUd 4; bqSUj 3; ۞EmR 11; rS/T+S/T/A + g RD3/ RC i 7 1382
and catchy no 6 is followed by a version in triple time, a *Saltarelle rSATB SU i 23, 27; HP6-7; ۞EmR3 ii. 1383, 1384
Another Dutch round dance is by JUDENKÜNIG gSG34. (762) 1385
The country dance ‘Sellengers round’ in 6/8 had appeared as ‘Brande d’Angleterre’ (Th389) and was used by BYRD for his set of variations F64, though only the fine opening harmonised statement (20 bars) would lend itself to stage use. (188d) 1386
Playford has ‘Shropshire rounds’ described as an old English *hornpipe (927) 1387
and the very sprightly clog dance ‘Gypsies round’ C171/ CW255/ G128 for which there had been a highly sophisticated (CDh 492) keyboard elaboration though ‘of a delightfully pastoral character’ (V234) by BYRD F216/ MB xxviii 80/ ۞Mo v 15; viol consort ۞ChF18; whose opening phrase is related to the country dance ‘Upon a Summer’s day’ (701) 1388
see also *catches; *part songs, for the other use of the word, ‘round’
rustics’ music see *country dance ,*shepherds (23, 193, 207, 415)


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S

sackbut bass companion to the *shawms or *cornetts, but unlike those two, almost unchanged in the sound produced from the modern equivalent, the trombone, whereas the others’ modern equivalents, oboes and trumpets, have a quite different tone quality.
‘sad and solemn music’ see *solemn music
sailors see *seafarers
saltarello Italian predecessor of the courtly *galliard dance form, literally ‘a little hop or jump’ sometimes characterized by rhythmic ambiguity due to such pulse shiftings as 3 against 2: 1.2.3.4.5.6. to 1.2.3.4.5.6.). Peggy Dixon gives description and steps DI ii 7-8, 12
An anonymous setting of a lute song to a poem of Sir Thomas Wyatt ‘Blame not my lute’ is based on a saltarello à 4 ‘La Gamba’ or ‘La Caracossa’ 1560; (1116, 1268) 1389
Susato has a Saltarello to follow his Ronde no 6. (849, 1384) 1390
The dance form was often paired with a *passamezzo *pavan (q.v.).
sarabande As well as the very moving classic Sarabande in the settings by PRAETORIUS also as ‘Sarabande espagnole’ in VALLET Les Secrets des muses. (1050) 1391
there are twoEnglish examples and ‘The New Adson Sarabande’ or ‘The New exchange’ RE 13 iii; 1391A
while Playford has another ‘Adson’s Sarabande’ ‘longways for six’ E17/ Eb87/ RE39 viii 1391B
satyrs see *masques
Scottish motifs See H. M. Shire Song, dance and poetry of the Court of Scotland under James VI CUP, 1969. A type of music most often associated with Scotland was the ‘hot and hasty’ Scotch *jig, as alluded to in Mu II i 76. cf Baskervill’s survey, in particular BS264.
Some examples from the early c1500s occur in the Straloch and Skene lute books including two from the latter (GB-Adv MS 5.2: 18) ‘A Port’ by the Celtic harper, Rorie DALL SP117; gJR5; 1392
and (GB-Adv MS 5.2: 15) ‘I serve a worthy lady’ gJR6. 1393
Others include ‘A Scotis gig: Ye owld man’ in (DY 2) rS + k DX2; rSSA RR ; ۞BaA15 1394
a Carl Dolmetsch anthology includes ‘Woe betide thy weary body’ rS + k DX14; 1395
and the Dallis lute book features a ‘Scotche *gayliarde’ 1583 (DL26). (157, 839) 1396
Phalèse has a ‘Galliarde d’Ecosse à 4 GT32, which is said to have been introduced into France by Mary Stuart after her marriage to Francis II in 1559 1397
The lively ‘Gigge’ by FARNABY F267/ MB xxiv 27 also appeared in MP24 as ‘Scottish jigge’; (223a, 986) 1398
also in The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book is his set of variations on the Scottish dance tune ‘Pawles wharf’ F113/ MB xxiv 46; ۞BroP3/ ۞CwL 16/ ۞Mh16; much admired by Naylor (Fn125, 199); this dance tune also appeared in Playford E88/ Eb77/ C130 and BRADE had made a setting 1617 as ‘Ein schottisch Tantz’ à 5 (BN16)/ BNd / SA397; rSSATB BC ii 22; ۞DU 25 i 4/ ۞Hc 19 vi/ ۞Wn19 i. 1399
The Straloch lute book has a ‘Scotch brawl’ (604) 1400
this appears to be unrelated to ‘*Branle d’Ecosse’ which occurs in Arbeau’s tutor (605) 1401
From another Continental source comes a ‘Ballet d’Ecossoise’ VS ii 2 1402
There is also a ‘Scottish gigg’ in common time (US-NYp Drexel 5609 p. 170/ F-Pn Rés 1186 f 17) GE1 1403
Some ‘English’ folk dances collected by Playford have a jaunty Scottish ring to them; ‘Paul’s steeple’ is based on a *passamezzo antico ground bass, the tune itself a strangely moving melody; E70/ Eb76/ C117-120/ SB210/ RE44; ۞BroJ / ۞BroP40/ ۞Sf 15/ ۞Wn5; rS/TS/T Eh 1; 1404
‘The Beggar boy’ E5/ Eb 7/ SB26/ C269-70/ SC ii / SCt iii 15/ SCg vii 2; ۞KnK22/ ۞Wn 13 ii; rS/TST Eh 15; rSSA Ez 15; 1405
‘Blew Cap’ E2/ Eb 8/ SB29/ SC ii / SCt vii 7; ۞Cw22/ ۞CwL20/ ۞KnK4; rS/TS/T Eh1 1; rS/T ST Eh 17; GE49; 1406
and an extremely bouncy dance entitled ‘Scotch cap’ E99/ Eb 89/ SC iv 10/ SCt vii 10/ SCg v 2; rSSA Ez7; which appears among a group of early Scottish songs on ۞BaB6. 1407
Some works by Scottish composers of the time: ‘My Lord of Marche paven’ by LAUDER which also occurs anonymously in a Scottish ms. as ‘The Golden Pavan’, the piece being described by Purser (PS109) as ‘a little sombre as well as stately, and full of subtle imitation’. (354g) 1409
The song ‘Adieu, O Daisy of Delight’ by BLACKHALL uPS115; ۞Se17 is admired by Purser for ‘the shapeliness of the tune with its repeated phrases, which is perfectly matched by the words in graceful assonance ‘About ane bank quhair on bewis’ The piece also exists as a part song à 4 (SATB) with the melody in the tenor, as ‘Declair ye banks of Helicon’ MB xv 49; 1410
and a Scottish version of a Paven à 4 appears in the Dublin Virginal book kDB21; à 4 DBt4. 1411
There is a Scottish piper’s lament à 3 ‘Joan Plackett’ which Rachel Percival suggests might be played on trumpets and (muffled) drum E 11/ Eb 273/ PE68/ SB248 1412
‘Scotch tune’ in SB386/ C86-7 with the title ‘Quoth John to Joan’. (287c) 1413
[The tune of the consort song with the title ‘Joan, quoth John’ by Nicholson (657) appears to bear no relation to this]
Purser refers to Mary Anne Alburger (Scottish fiddlers and their music. 1983, p. 15) where the author notes that *bagpipes were used at witches’ covens and recommends ‘Kilt thy coat Maggie’ from the Skene ms (c. 1625) PS123. 1414
Rinn Mi Mocheirigh’ (‘I rose early’) dating back to 1523, uses the pentatonic scale and features the Scotch snap. Purser admires the great swing to the rhythms featured PS126. 1415
There is a ‘Scots march’ in the Elizabeth Rogers Virginal Book which Purser finds lends itself to playing on fife and drum PS152. 1416
Paul O’Dette includes in a recording four Scottish pieces for cittern collected by Robert Edwards (1617-96) ۞OH8-11; 1417-20
and Jeremy Barlow has four popular 17th c. Scottish tunes featuring solo viols ‘The Clean country way’; ‘Gilkderoy’; ‘Gilliecrankie’; and ‘The Miller of the Dee’ in ۞BroP21-24. 1421-4
Playford has a ‘Scots rant’ with its effective off beat accentuations E56/ Eb 161 1424A
and The Baltimore consort have produced an anthology :Adeu Dundee’ in which four of the 23 tracks are represented in this survey (220c, 462, 1102 and 1114)
See also *Divisions for mention of a Ground by KINLOCH (746) 1425
seafarers a place might perhaps be found in Tem for the folk song ‘Row well ye mariners’; (403b) 1426
the ‘freeman song’ or round in RAVENSCROFT ‘We be three poore mariners’ Rb6; (23c) 1427
for the ‘Sailors’ masque’ à 2, an antimasque in Campion’s Squire’s masque 1613 (LM47: 27v-28r, 79v) SA98; rS+k LMb i 2; 1428
this followed the song ‘Come ashore’ for voice, lute and bass viol by COPERARIO SA2 1429
or for the slightly comic instrumental ‘Ballet des matelotz’ à 4 P280 from PRAETORIUS Terpsichore; ۞EmP6 ii/ ۞NeP8 iii/ ۞PaD30 iii; rSATB TD30; 1430
and for voice and 4 viols FARRANT ‘Ah alas, ye salt-sea gods’ or ‘Abradad’ MB xxii 7/ WE ii 2, ۞FP7/ ۞RoE2; which has also been ascribed to PARSONS but Brett suggests is less likely 1431
For lute is ‘La marinière’ VS i 78 1431A
The Skeaping anthology includes a ‘Sailor’s dance’ which seems to employ the jaunty ‘Jew’s dance’ by NICHOLSON ۞YF23 (963) 1432
seasons and weather in the course of the survey, songs relating the seasons have been mentioned:
spring, ‘When daisies pied’; (154, 552) 1433
and ‘When daffodils begin to peer’ (403) 1434
while winter is represented by ‘When icicles hang on the wall’ (155) 1435
There are two seasonal nature poems in music by PEERSON, both as consorts and in keyboard versions, representing spring ‘The Primerose’ F271/ Fa 1; rA + g PP3; rAA/TT Fs4 1436
and autumn, ‘Fall of the leafe’ kF272/ Fa4/ FE18; chamber organ ۞ChF11; gFd5;rAA/TT Fs5; rA +g PP2; rSATB/T Fg6; 1437
and in a warmer context, the lute song by CAMPION ‘It fell upon a summer’s day’. (1081) 1438
Among the consort songs are ‘This Merry pleasant Spring’, MB xxii 62/ WE i 2; (558) 1439
moving on a little, ‘When May is in its prime’, attributed to EDWARDS MB xxii 23/ WE ii 1; 1440
‘In a Merry May morn’ by NICHOLSON WE iii 2; (1178) 1441
and a Scottish contribution is ‘O lusty May’ by MELVILL. (1179) 1442
The ‘Tempest’ Fantasia F3 by John MUNDY has a ‘naive programme’ (CDh490) comprising ‘Faire wether’, ‘Lightning and Thunder’,followed by ‘Calme wether’ leading to ‘A cleare day’, a work which is ‘full of charming playfulness’ (V189-190); RV31 (789) (1443)
sennet etymology from ‘sonata’, and therefore formal in style (Dart); also related to the French ‘siegnate’ (NOHM iv 757); see also article in G7 xxiii 88-9 by Edward H Tarr. A signal used to usher in or off large groups of actors, or to add solemnity and ceremony to an occasion; MM176 suggests that to be effective sennets need 3-4 trumpets or mixed trumpets and trombones as in JC V.
John Stevens stresses the clear distinction between a sennet and a *tucket (SM15-16). CM416 give sennets for l-2 trumpets and drums under the heading ‘Ceremonial music C2’. (82) 1444-5
The ALISON ‘De la tromba Pavan’ has been suggested for use as a sennet . (38a, 268, 1264) 1446 (1514)
and the PRAETORIUS graceful yet invigorating ‘Volte de tambour’ à 5 P199 though not great music, could prove useful. 1447 (1536)
A sonnerie drum pattern calling the French cavalry to their horses ‘Boute-selle’ N202. 1448
serenade see Mu V ii 26; T&C entr’acte between II-III, and in TG IV ii. (242, 336, 371)
shawms a large family of reed instruments (ancestors of the oboe, hence the name used in Shakespeare’s time, ‘hautboys’ whose ‘outdoor’ quality of sound fits them to the stage directions ‘loud *music’. Reconstructions have been made. MM99 notes their association with weddings and banquets. A consort of oboes (i.e. shawms) probably augmented by *sackbuts is frequently called for in drama of the time (NOHM iv 818). Where perhaps the *curtall could take the bass line. See also Lord 109-110.
shepherds John P. Cutts suggests using the *antimasque dance ‘Shepherds’ masque’ LM66 for the Sheep-shearing scene in WT IV iii. (407a) 1449
Instrumental pieces classed as ‘bergerettes’ are in the Danserye à 4 of SUSATO 1558 ‘Sans roche’ whose tune will probably be familiar SU i 6 (and reprises i 8-10); rSATB BC i 21; rATTB SUd5; rA CT13; RC iii 26; ۞EmR7/ ۞YC 11; 1450-1
and another ‘Danse du berger’ is SU i 10/ RC ii 33. ۞YC10 1452
There is a beautiful consort song with four viols (ATBB) as ‘When Daphne from fair Phoebus did fly’ MB xxii 63 which was also set by FARNABY for virginals as ‘Daphne’ F112, which Lynda Sayce finds an extraordinary piece demonstrating great rhythmic variety, however for stage use the opening five bars make a very fine setting of the hauntingly beautiful tune. It also appeared as a dance in Playford as ‘Daphne, or the Shepherdess’. The piece could feature in the comedies when the *greenwood beckons, for instance at the end of Act 1 of MND. (191d) 1453
A ballad ‘The Shepherd’s joy’, opening with the words ‘Come sweet love, let sorrow’ also appeared as ‘Barrow Fosters Dreame’ in The Ballet lute book 1589 and an anonymous keyboard setting as ‘Barafostus’ Dream’ F18 which Naylor considered from internal evidence suggests BYRD as composer (Fn83/ V248) and preferred his setting to that of TOMKINS (Fn94-5) (201b) 1454
A folk dance with a pastoral motif is ‘Shepherd’s holiday’ or ‘Labour in vaine’, a simple but plaintive tune E101/ Eb91/ SC iii 17/ SCt v 17/ SCg viii 2; ۞Wn7; tune & steps DI iv 23; rSSA Ed 17 1455
MORLEY published his 21 Canzones to two voices in 1595; no 18 is one of 9 fantasias for 2 viols included in the set, one entitled ‘La Sampogna’ (Shepherds pipe) rSA Schott 11656; also in Peters H 1992; ۞BaW8. 1456
David Munrow includes a fine ‘Pastorella’ set for shawm, 3 sackbuts and tabor in his ‘Henry VIII’ Recording ۞EmH13 1457
Christopher Wilson finds the sound of descant recorder suggestive of a shepherd’s pipe (W8-9).
see also *bagpipe, *branle, *country dance
side drums see *drums
signals Gurr 311 suggests that of the various types of *trumpet signal, for example *sennet and *tucket which emerge with precise meanings, *flourish seems at times more generalised term for entry and exit of dignitaries both military and civil. See also *alarum, *battle music, *bells, *charge, *drum, *excursion, *parley, *retreat, *waits
singer-actors the best adult actor-singer Shakespeare had was Robert Armin, a famous Feste in TN, who as Thurston Dart remarks, ‘would have sulked if not given full reign in both capacities’. Others were John Alleyn and Jacke Wilson (of whom it is documented acted the part of Balthasar in Mu).
Boy actors were normally expected to sing as well take female or children’s roles. The two pages in As V iii who joined Touchstone ‘like two gipsies on a horse’ (‘It was a lover and his lass’) and the actual name of the Welsh boy singer in 1H4 is known, Robert Goffe, who acted and sang the part of Lady Mortimer. The ‘sweet airs’ sung by Moth in LLL lighten the hot-house atmosphere.
In Cym IV ii leading up to the presentation of the dirge ‘Fear no more the heat o’ the sun’, there is self-conscious discussion of whether it should be sung or recited. In MoV III iv 66-7 Portia’s manly disguise includes imitating an adolescent’s breaking voice, a phenomenon also made much of in AW II iii 63.
There is a dismissive allusion by Mistress Quickly in 2H4 II i 91 to a ‘singing man of Windsor’ which is followed up in AS 234 App. III. 90. cf ESI 73 which reflects on the status of musicians in Tudor society.
W.H. Auden declares that if the actors ‘had not been needed to sing, the dramatic action in Mu, As and TN would have got along quite well without’ (ALd512) John P. Cutts summarises other roles requiring competent singers: (CU71 p. xxviii-xxix)
A&C Boy (with Caesar, Pompey, Antony, Enobarbus joining in the refrain); Mardian the eunuch
Cym Boy, Guiderius, Arviragos
H8 Boy (Queen Katharine’s waiting woman)
KL Fool, Edgar
Mac Hecate, The Witches
MfM Boy
Oth Iago, Desdemona, Emilia
Per Marina
Tem Ariel, Stephano, Caliban, Tinculo, Juno, Ceres
TNK Boy, Jailer’s Daughter, Schoolmaster
WT Autolvcus, Mopsa, Dorcas
See also *mean, *musicians, *consort songs, *song
sink-a-pace, see *cinque pace *galliard
sleep see *lullaby; see especially MND (208)
Sneak’s noise the waits band who play ‘a merry song’ at ‘The Boar’s Head’ in 2H4 II iv (57)
‘soft music’; ‘solemn music’ see *Music in stage directions
song the important place that song plays in the dramas is well attested by the considerable number which feature in the main survey, together with snatches from popular songs of the time to both comic (e.g. TN, WT; see also *clowns) and tragic effect (e.g. Ham, Oth; see also *madness).
See especially David Lindley ‘Shakespeare’s provoking music’ CDw 79-90 and W.H.Auden on the significance in the plays of song and the singers (including voice quality) ALd 524-6
sorcery see Macbeth in the survey for the introductory note and the suggested music including the Witches’ dances by Robert JOHNSON; Peter Walls notes how in the Second Witches’ dance the purely musical logic is set aside (WP142). (160, 162) 1458-9
PRAETORIUS Terpsichore includes a sprightly ‘Ballet des sorciers’ à 4 P262/ Pm iv 11; ۞NeP7 i 1460
soundings trumpet fanfares preceding performance of plays (MM10-11) given together with a sequence of a single knock, then two, then three knocks see *incidental music
Spanish motifs two moving examples of villancicos by ENCINA c1500 have been already mentioned: these are in the form of *laments from the Cancionero de Palacio, ‘Una sañosa porfia’ and ‘Triste España sin ventura’ (1035) 1461; (1036) 1462
together with a motet by LOBO ‘Versa est in luctum’ also effective played instrumentally (1034) 1463
One of the most hauntingly plaintive melancholy pieces in the repertoire whose origin has been traced to the Netherlands is the ‘Spagnioletta’ in triple time. There are two versions by CAROSO for lute in his Il Ballerino 1581 and Nobilità di Dame 1600 DH34-5/ WY 13; steps DH32-3, ۞BroL6/ ۞DH no 6; gNR1; in three settings by PRAETORIUS à 5 P26 and two versions à 4 P27 SA342/ Pm iii 5/ Pc7; ۞EmP 2/ ۞PaD 13; P28: ۞NeP10 ii/ ۞Pb7 i; rS/A + k; rB/A + k DE3; steps SA p.17 & 547; in ZANETTI as a consort à 4 in Il Scolaro as ‘Spagnoletta’ rA CT50 and for virginals by FARNABY as ‘The Old Spagnoletta’ kF289/ FAd 10/ MB xxiv 29/SA342; ۞A3/ ۞Du 13/ ۞Go2: 1; rSATB Ft3; rA + g FAf4; rS + k DD4; b-v DN10 (1341) 1464
(note, his Spagnoletta F54/ FAd 11/ MB xxiv 30 is not related to the traditional tune) 1465
‘The Spanish *pavane’, one of the most noble and dignified melodic shapes in the repertoire, may be of Italian origin. It was used by CABEZÓN in his ‘particularly impressive’ (NOHM iv 615) ‘Diferencias sobre la Pavana italiana’ à 4, 1578 rSATB Moeck 371-2; by CAROSO 1581 as ‘Pavaniglia,’ for lute (quoted in full in an article by Richard Hudson in (G7 xix 252-3) showing the traditional chord patterns and the melody most often associated with the ‘Spanish pavane’), in the two haunting settings by PRAETORIUS (1612) P29 à 5 and P30 à 4 as ‘Pavane de Spaigne’ and the many other settings mentioned in the text. Cf Diana Poulton ‘Notes on The Spanish Pavane’ LSJ 3 (1961) 5-16 (142a, 1342) 1466
Sarabande (zarabanda), originally a lively dance associated with North East Spain, yet whose characteristics are grace and delicacy as in PRAETORIUS ‘La Sarabande’ P33 à 5 (1050, 1344) 1467
An anonymous *Coranto F225 fits the dance steps for the ‘Coranto d’Espagne’. (667) 1468
A piece for vihuela (historic guitar) by FUENLLANA is ‘Fantasia de redobles’ 1554 (796) 1469
and Rosenberg has edited ORTIZ Ricercarda no 2 for rA/T + g; rS/T/A + g RD31; ۞BroA7: 5 1470
and there is a jaunty Spanish gypsy dance ‘Come follow, follow me’ (143e) 1471
There is a lute piace by VALLET L’Espagnolle VS i 71 1471A
Despite its title, the connection with Spain of the ancient ‘La Spagna’ is not established; see *basse danse
spheres see *Music of the spheres
spring see *Seasons
stage directions see under *Music in stage directions
stage machinery sound of noisy stage machinery might be disguised with *loud music
‘stage music’ one of the four categories into which *Sternfeld separates Shakespeare’s use of music in the plays, the signals *flourishes, *sennets, *tuckets
Sternfeld, Frederick W. the foremost scholar on the music in Shakespeare’s plays; see Bibliography
‘Still *music’ see *Music in stage directions
stops finger holes on the recorder and the frets placed across the fingerboard on the lute and other plucked stringed instruments. Some allusions traced:
‘To sound what stop she please’ Ham III ii 71;
‘Look you these are the stops…’ Ham III ii 365;
‘Rumour is a pipe…and of so easy and so plain a stop that… the…multitude can play upon it’ 2H4Ind 15-20;
‘a lute-string, and new governed by stops’ Mu III ii 57;
and the stage direction, ‘Falstaff…playing on his truncheon like a fife’ 1H4 III iii 90
street cries and pedlars’ songs composers of distinction were drawn to the ‘subspecies of the consort song’ (CDh394) ‘City cries’ à 5 set by DERING for voices and viols opening with the marketer singing ‘What do you lack…pins, points, garters’ MB xxii 69/ S&B H231; ۞Tv6 1472
Other advertisements belong to the tinker’s and apothecary’s trades, selling such merchandise as juniper, garlic, broom, salt, ink and glass; these samples are given in PE61-2 WT IV ii and iii. 1473
A further song is ‘Buy new broome’ by WHYTHORNE 1571 WE ii 6. MB xxii 66; ۞RI 22; cf Bruce Smith The acoustic world of Early Modern England. Chicago, 1990, pp.64-5. The Skeapings’ enterprise includes this quodlibet to represent town life in Tudor times where New cockles, New oysters, were on sale, and Brooms could it seems be exchanged for Old shoes (in D’Urfey, entitled ‘Trader’s melody’) ۞CwL3/ ۞Sk5; performance notes Sk19-21; 1473A
WEELKES’ collection, ‘Cries of London’ opens with ‘New oysters’ à 3 Rp / K96-7; ۞Tv4 1473B
The sequence follows with, ‘Sweep chimney, sweep’ 1473C
‘Buy any black’ [shoe polish] 1473D
‘A cooper am I’ 1473E
‘Chairs to mend’ 1473F
Another pedlar’s song is ‘Come buy my greens and flowers fine’ set for rSA/S + xyl in CM9 1473G
stringed instruments see *lute, *pandora, *tuning, *viol many figurative allusions include 1H4 II iv 5 and 2H6 II i 57
supernatural effects see also ‘still *music,’ *Music of the spheres, *recorder, *sorcery; music has been suggested to convey ghostly effects in A&C IV iii 11-13, Cym V iv, 2H6 1 iv 23, JC IV ii 325, Per V i and Tem I ii 385; (33-5, 83, 116, 137, 263-4, 298)
and the solemnity of the pavan should prove effective in ‘vision’ scenes, for example the slow, peaceful and unworldly ‘The Countess of Pembroke’s Paradise’ [J2] H17 by HOLBORNE, especially its first strain. (138a, 1202) 1474
There is an effectively mysterious broken consort ‘The Sprites tune’ MB xl 27 for which there is a version for lute ‘The voice of the Earthe’ (DY62, p. 113), for cittern by HOLBORNE [J24]; ۞R5; ‘The voyce of the ghost’ HC12 and a keyboard setting by BYRD ‘The Ghost’ F162/ MB xxvii 78; ۞Mo vii 10. 1475
Another BYRD piece is the Fancie in C which Paul Nicholson plays on the organ and would be effective in a ‘vision’ scene (791) 1476
‘sweet music’ Thurston Dart’s anthology of Jacobean consort music includes much of HUME’s music for viols, among it is a graceful *maske dance ‘The Earl of Salisbury’s favourite,’ which is designated ‘Sweet music’ for 2 lyra *viols and bass viol MB9: 13/ HV as ‘Grave musickes’ no. 1; ۞DoH 14 1477


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