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This incorporates an attempt to follow up any kind of musical allusion in the play texts and stage directions which relate to dance and other musical forms. The examples chosen to represent musical forms are mainly by Elizabethan and Jacobean Court composers, often anonymous settings, here singled out for such qualities as concision and memorability. It should not prove a hindrance to their performance that pieces in this repertoire based on tunes and motifs from the popular music of the time for the most part was written for virginals, a gentle instrument unsuited to the stage and certainly inappropriate in open air performances. Much of this fine repertoire has been adapted for consorts of recorders or other instruments, and selection of titles for inclusion in this survey has often been related to the material drawn to my attention by the enthusiasm of the compilers of anthologies.

Works cited where a composer is not given are anonymous; in general, it is such pieces, especially those from the lute books, which will often prove most apt for use as stage music.

Full bibliographical citations (together with an incipit in musical notation) including those for related music in alternative settings are to be found in the preceding play survey within the serial number sequence 1-417. If a music suggestion has not been allocated to a particular point in a play, bibliographical information is given here in the NOTES, and if there is more than one numerical reference, see under the serial number in bold type within square brackets.

Included here also are various types of signals that may be encountered, as for instance those which might lend themselves to distinguish one particular faction or ‘house’ from another as they occur in the course of the plays.

see under word following the asterisk for detailed entry in these NOTES.



paduana see pavan
parley *trumpet *flourish calling for termination of a battle
passamezzo pavan (passing-measure *pavin; passy measures pavin) ‘Pass’ e mezzo’ literally ‘a step and a half’ implying a slightly faster movement than the stately pavan. They could follow certain patterns in the chordal scheme implied by the ground bass. See G7 xix 194-6 for history and examples. The passamezzo was often complemented with a *saltarello, equivalent to a *galliard.
Dart describes the ‘passymeasures’ as a stately walk as in a modern pantomime finale, using an eight-bar phrase repeatable as many times as stage business demanded.
Of the allusion to ‘passymeasurs pavin’ in TN V i 197 for which an example is provided in Barlow’s disc ۞BroS20. Naylor notes that Sir Toby is referring to a pavan played so quickly that the steps had to be cut short, (twisting this dance music allusion into his reflections on the speed of the doctor’s intoxication). 1210
There is another ‘Passe a mesures pavan’ (FD 9v-10 i) WM ii 149/ ۞St9 1210A
Those in the minor mode were classed as ‘passamezzo antico,’ e.g. ground DH28; steps DH29; ۞BroL4/ ۞DH no 4; (ground 919) 1211
This genre of composition could fall into three sections, as in the Passamezzo antico of AMMERBACH with its Reprise, together with a Saltarello in 3/4 (see incipits) HM154 1212
The ‘passamezzo moderno’ (or ‘passamezzo per B quadro’ i.e. employing B natural, also referred to as a ‘quadran’ or ‘quadro’) would imply a major mode. The description could apply to both the pavan and galliard. (ground 920) 1213
The most familiar musical motif used for this dance form is the anonymous ‘Passymeasures: My Lady Greensleeves’ (350b) 1214
As witness to their popularity, nearly a quarter of the pieces in The Dallis lute book 1583 (DL) are classed as passamezzos, 36 ‘antico’ and 10 ‘moderno’ (see LSJ ix 1967 p17ff).
John Ward’s lute anthology includes two such examples, a ‘Pascy mesure’ WM ii 90 1215
and a ‘Passe a measures pavion’ (FD f9v-10) WM ii 149; 1216
and Carl Dolmetsch singles out a ‘Passamezzo del Giorgio’ for his Shakespeare music anthology DP ii 4; also as ‘Saltarello’ in tLPM DM3: 43 ed. Morrow 1217
Susato has a ‘Pass e medio’ pavan à 4 with its ‘Reprinse le pinge’ SU i p. 47; ۞EmR 10 rATTB SUd8 1218-9
Another ‘Pavana passa e mezzo’ is given in an edition for recorders TD2 1219A
Two pavans appear in Phalèse 1583, ‘Passamezzo d’Angleterre GT30/ CT29/ Heinr 1064 1220
and the ‘Parade des Bouffons’ employing the passamezzo moderno as ground bass (106b) 1221
Other relevant pieces are included in the following section and under *pavan and galliard pairs.
See also *ground
pastoral scenes see *shepherds
pavan, pavane, pavin, paduana slow dance in duple time of Italian origin. See also *pavan and galliard. Arbeau notes how it was often used as a wedding march or when musicians head a procession of some notable guild (cf G7 xix 249). Morley writes that this kind of ‘staid music is ordained for grave dancing and most commonly made of three strains, whereof every strain is played twice’. The first English reference is traced to 1530.
Arbeau (1589) describes the pavan as ‘consisting of two single steps (simples) and one double (doubles) forward, then two single steps and one double step backwards, played in simple time (mésure binaire)’ (ARe 57, cf DF83). He notes that pavans could be used in masquerades to herald the Entrance of gods and goddesses in their triumphal chariots or Emperors or Kings ‘in full majesty’ (ARe 59).
A French example of a Pavan from lerLivre of Attaignant 1529 is in HM104/ AT1 1222
The sequence was referred to as *‘measures’, a name originally attached to the *basse danse (MM141) as in the famous description by Beatrice in Mu II i 76 ‘mannerly-modest, as a measure, full of state and ancientry’ (cf *passamezzo antico).
Baskervill also gives the steps and notes its suitability for the ceremonious court function or for the triumphal entry of gods or goddesses or royal personages in a *masque (BS339-40).
It cannot be presumed that all pieces entitled ‘Pavan’, especially later examples, will prove suitable for dancing, though some of the shorter earliest examples can prove to be effective on the stage.
Some of the earliest English pavans are contained in GB-Lbl Royal App.58 (RA) c1536, à 3 (two- stave arrangements) (cf CDh 261-2) including ‘Emperorse Pavyn’ (RA f47) which consists of twenty- two bars in slow triple time WM ii 47/ MB lxvi 39/ RAd5; à 4 HEd 1 (bars 1-12 are given in HV69); 1223
another ‘Paduana’ appears in The Morlaye collection of 1552 gCR5 1224
and ‘The Kynges Pavyn’ also known as ‘Kyng harry viijth pavyn’ à 3, later appearing in a rather ; brighter setting in the Estrées collection à 4 1559, reissued Phalèse 1571 as ‘Pavane Les Quercarde’ in versions for keyboard and solo lute. (95) 1225
Another early example is in The Mulliner Book ‘A Pavyon’ c1550 by NEWMAN in C minor MB i (f 110v) 116/ MB1s/ MB 1a 7/ HD1; rA+g MB1d 3; rSATB DC1, described enthusiastically by Willi Apel (NOHM iv 624) which, (unlike the ‘Emperor’s Pavyn’) is in common time, the standard rhythm for later English pavans. Mabel Dolmetsch under the heading ‘Long pavan’ gives steps DF97-100. 1226
She also recommends ‘Souche’s maske’ (DF89) ‘for an occasional revelry such as a courtly masque,’ where it would be suited to the processional parade of characters’, and (225a) 1227
Natalie Dolmetsch has chosen two pavans à 5 from the Lumley part books LWd 1-2; 1228-9
From the Tisdale virginal book comes a Pavan à 4 by MARCHANT Tv6; rSS/AATB HD9; 1230
John Ward’s collection has a ‘Pavion’ from the Lodge lute book (LO f8v-9) WM 147; 1231
and two Passymeasures pavans by John JOHNSON (GB-Cu Dd iii 18 f24v; Dd iii 11 f62v; BO26 8v-9v) WM68-9/ WY 18. ۞OL23 1232-3
PRAETORIUS ‘Passameze pour les cornetz’ à 6 P288 would make a fine grand entry (1128) 1234 (1360)
and other fine examples CUTTING ‘Pavane sans per’ (CH 84v/ PI 18v-19/ GB-Gu MS R d 43 (f32v-33) CF7; gCFj 4/ LU4 1235
and GERVAISE ‘La Venissienne’ (Attaignant 1550); ۞EsU18; rSATB RC ii 36/ in LPM AD4 (961) 1236
Three pavans from the SUSATO Danserye 1551 are ‘Pavane la *Bataille’ SU ii 46 (510) 1237
The moving ‘Mille regrets’ which could be used effectively as a most processional rSATB spLPM234/ Su ii 42/HP2; ۞Cl3: 1; ۞CwM22/ ۞YC7; rS/A/T/B + g RD3 (after the famous chanson by Josquin des Près: voice + rS/AA/TTB BC i 5) for which there is also a keyboard setting by BYRD 1238 (1359)
and the poignant ‘Si pas souffrir’ (after a chanson by Courtois) rSATB SU ii 45/ HP4/ RC i 33/ rA CT 4; ۞Cl 3: 3 1239
‘Pavane of Albart’ appeared in many collections as an allemande (424) 1240
‘Le devil yssu’ is a lute pavan now attributed to ALISON 1583 (DL247) which later appeared in Morley’s Consort Lessons as ‘La Responce pavin’ bcM24; 1241
and perhaps the most famous pavan is a piece now familiar from Warlock’s Capriol suite 2nd movement, one of the best known of pieces of the 16th century, ‘Belle qui tiens’ in ARBEAU Orchésographie 1588 (uniquely in this dance manual as à 4-part setting ARe60-7) (151c) 1242
The main survey includes a number of Pavans from HOLBORNE Pavans, Galliardes à 5 1599 to which may be added [J11] H37; à 4; rS/AATTB Hm4; rAA/TT/B Hg11; cittern HB36, 1243
and the gentle but rather serious ‘Heres Paternus’ [J50] H33; rS/AATTB Hm 3; lute HB 10; ۞A1/ ۞Cc7/ ۞He24 1244
Among a good number of keyboard pavanes featured in the Fitzwilliam virginal book is a particularly fine one by Robert JOHNSON with a chromatic second section, whose original lute version is lost though it exists in a keyboard setting by Farnaby F39/ MB xxiv 14; ۞HeP20/ ۞KyJ 11; 1245
and Van den Borren writes that the Pavana by TISDALE F220 is distinguished by its harmonic audacities (V284) rather putting it outside its potential use in the theatre; 1246
and his pavan ‘Clement Cotton’ F219 he considers to have an ‘aesthetic value of the first rank’. 1247
The Pavan F123 by TOMKINS is surely one of the finest of Elizabethan dance settings, ۞Py 15; this work also exists as a consort à 5; (151e) 1248
and among fine works for viol consort by MICO is a remarkably beautiful Pavan à 5 rSSATB BC ii 20 and another à 4 rAATB BC i 32. 1249-50
Among the great sequence of pavans for consort à 6 for viols and lute which form the first part of DOWLAND ‘Lachrimae’ 1604 (cf DDP117-133), some exist in versions for solo lute (31a) 1251
‘Sir John Langton’s pavan’, a gracious lament much admired by Caldwell (CDf483) D14/ DR12:5; ۞BreG22/ ۞OD iii 2; à 6 DA10; ۞DoL11/ ۞CmD vi 15/ ۞FG i 12/ ۞Ld i 5; rSSATB DAb 3; lute ۞CmD xi 3; 1252
the bitterly introspective ‘Semper Dowland, semper Dolens’; (1021) 1253
and an extened and lively pavane à 5 for SSAB viols + continuo. not included in his published collections MB9: 104/ DA24/ SZ5; ۞CmD xii 5/ ۞Hf18/ ۞Hp13/ ۞RoC 1; though Diana Poulton confirms how doubtful is the attribution (PD373); 1254
the stately opening of the long and searching and rather introspective lute pavan ‘Resolution’ or ‘Adeu for Master Oliver Cromwell,’ D13; ۞BreD23/ ۞CmD viii 12/ ۞Ld iv 9/ ۞OD iii 15/ ۞RoC 18 could make a fine processional in a serious context. 1255
‘Pavana ploravit’ by HOLBORNE is a version of Dowland’s famous opening pavan, also well known in its lute song version ‘Flow my tears’; (31a, 109a, 1024)1256
a very dignified pavane is Holborne’s ‘Last will and testament’. (61a) 1257
and there is the rather long ‘Sedet sola’ (J20) consort H19; lute HB8; ۞He19/ ۞Ma 10 whose opening is particularly effective. 1258
The editors of MB9 consider ‘The Dovehouse pavan’ of FERRABOSCO II ‘one of the loveliest pavans known to them’ MB9: 64; ۞Wb8. 1259
A FARNABY pavan is based on the popular tune (see under *tucket 1513) ‘Why aske you’ F286/ MB xxiv 39/ MP (f108v) 65, a profound ‘Four note’ pavan (CDe 475) 1260
and GIBBONS pavans have an austere gravity (CDh 492) MB xx 17 and 15 (336c i, ii) 1261-2
Among a set of pieces by HUME for lyra *viol is a Pavan MB9: 120/ HV46; gBG4e. 1263
The ALISON ‘De la tromba pavan’ à 5 was chosen by Morley for his Consort lessons) which John Long suggested as appropriate for a flourish* and Danish march for use in Hamlet III ii, and for the *sennet in R2 signalling the opening Act V, for certainly near the end of the piece develops a certain martial quality (38a, 268) 1264 (1514)
pavan and galliard pairs these contrast stately (duple time) with animated (triple), sometimes in Continental sources based on the same motif, though rather rare in the very extensive English repertoire. ‘Pavans are slow and grave, and each section should be repeated. The galliard is lighter and more stirring’ (Dart The Interpretation of Music, p.117). The forms originated in Italy as *passamezzo and *saltarello. Steps DI iii 38-43
Italian examples of pavans and salterelli c1558 are ‘La Cornetta’, a very expressive pavan which appeared in a number of dance collections rATTB ND5/ LPM DM3: 19; rSATB BC i 14; rA CT2 with its saltarello rAAAB ND5-6 1265-6
Other Italian examples are the ‘Pavana in passa e mezzo’ c1520; lute WL3; rAATB ND9-10; rSATB TD2 and its accompanying *Saltarello or Gagliarda ‘La Gamba’ (or ‘La Caracossa’) rSA/TT/BB (RA10) TR26; LPM DM3: 27 (ed. Morrow); ۞Gt8 ii/ ۞Mt9; sopranino and soprano recorders, ATB shawms; galliard alone ۞YM3; it also exists in a setting à 6 by the Hessen brothers. Rooley offers another version of this music as a lute song ‘Blame not my lute’ to a poem by Sir Thomas Wyatt (FS f4v ii) in The Penguin Book of early music (1980) 2; ۞Mt 10 1267; (1116) 1268 (1389)
A pair from Attaignant’s 1529 collection is in gCR2-3; 1269-70
Bernard Thomas draws attention to one of the most attractive versions of a passamezzo antico à 4 with its related galliard in GERVAISE (Attaignant 6me Livre 1555) LPM AD 6. 1271-2
‘Prince Edward’s [1537-53] Pavane’ rATTB BC i 18; rS/A/T/B + g RD30; à 5 rS/AS/AA/TTB RC i 44; ۞Mt21; bq GD2 which originates in a Scottish collection, Van den Borren (V253) cites as a simple illustration of the transformation of a melody from duple (pavane) to 3/4 (galliarde) in the simplified version in the same 1555 Gervaise set à 5 (f 4, 5v) as ‘Pavane d’Angleterre’ (et sa galliarde) ATp9-10/ HM137b/ MB xv 76/ MI 54; steps DI iii ; ۞MnF5 I-ii. The melody of the pavan stems from a ballad ‘Heaven and Earth’ (RA58 f52, 55v) which also appeared as a lute piece c1550 WL4; bass viol & lute ۞DoH6/ ۞Sf 10; kWM ii 126. 1273-4
The earlier examples from Britain, which tended to lend themselves to dancing rather than as abstract music, are often anonymous, though three of these are now attributed to John JOHNSON ‘the earliest of the great English lutenists of the ‘‘Golden Age’’’ (G6 vi 679). One based on the tune ‘Chestnut’ (in Playford as ‘Dove’s Figary’ E85/ Eb14/ SC ii / SCt iv 1; rSSA + pe Ek9; steps DI iii ; ۞EnG 1 ii, is the ‘Flat pavan’ (Pavione) which also exists for solo lute, (FS6 ii -7 i/ BO 2v 7) WM ii 21; together with its Galliard (BA15-16, pp. 18-19/ FD f 10) and likewise in the version for two lutes (PI 4v-5, 5v-6r) tLR 24-25; ۞A7/ ۞L9-10; 2gJG3-4/ NR43-44. The pavane alone was for broken consort (DL92) MB xl 14 and set by Farnaby for virginals F284/ MB xxiv 15/ MB lv 21; ۞Sa4, 9 and anonymously MPf 108; tune SB62. Matthew Spring compares versions (SP 169-172). Peggy Dixon describes the pavane (DI iii 10, 11 ii) combining it with the ‘Frog galliard’ (188b) 1275-6
‘La Vcechia’ pavan and galliard for solo lute has a noble simplicity (FS f12v/ PI f 4) and is also in versions for two *lutes (DL85) LSoc C23:1/ LR4-5/ t ST3-4; 2gSTg 4, 3; ۞L17-18; the sections are also publiahed separately: 2g galliard I 14, and the pavane for broken consort in the Walsingham part books MB xl 15, set by Holborne for cittern [J26] as ‘Le Vecchio’ HC10; a setting à 5 attributed to Peter Philips (GB-Lbl Egerton 3665 f522) and for keyboard MB lv 8a-b (1064-5) 1277-8
and another Pavan and Galliard which appeared in many lute manuscripts are especially singled out by Matthew Spring SP91-3: ‘to Delight’, 2 versions t(BO 20,22) LU13-14/ WM ii 60-61/ WY 1-2; ۞OL 18-19/ ۞Sa8/ ۞Th 12-13/ ۞YM 12-13; gDU1-4 (also set for virginals by Byrd F277-8/ MB xxvii 5a-b, and the Pavane alone exists for lute (DY24 pp. 92-4) and for broken consort t(BO 14v-15r 20) / MB xliv 13. In his recommendation of this pair of dances, Naylor had attributed them to Edward JOHNSON (Fn 114-5) 1279-80
There is a host of pavane and galliard sets in the keyboard collections including the Dublin virginal book c1560: by [John?] TAYLOR DB3-4; rSATB HD3-4; 1281-2
and an anonymous set DB5-6; à 4 DBt1-2; rSATB HD7, rSS/ATB HD8 1283-4
The most prolific source in English instrumental music of the Elizabethan period, The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book for instance has no less than 68 sets. Some of the outstanding pairs, perhaps rather more sophisticated in style, are the superb dances by PHILIPS appearing both in Fitzwilliam and also as consorts à 5 (see G7 xix 591):
‘especially memorable’ (CDh475) is the ‘grand and tragic’ (Peter Holman) ‘Pavana Pagget
and galliardo’ c1590 kF74-5; à 5: MB9: 71-2/ in LPM EML 104/ S&B H135: 4-5; ۞PaC4-5, a pair especially singled out by Naylor (Fn114-5). 1285-6
Van den Borren (V280) remarks on the pavane’s melodic richness in the Passamezzo pavane rSSAT Fq3 and Galliarda passamezzo à 6 LPM EM7; kF76-7. The gossamer quality of the pavane suggests its possible use in a performance of MND. (225c) 1287; (266a) 1288
‘Pavana and galiarda dolorosa’ 1593 kF80-1; à 5 LPM EML 135; ۞OH6-7/ ۞PaC13-14; organ ۞Wb5-6; galliard alone RV11; ۞OH7 in the lute ms GB-Cu Dd 9 33 the pair is headed ‘Chromatica pavana e galiarda’ l/t LSoc 17.6; as they rather searches the depths (and the pavan is long and would not lend itself to truncation) it would be out of place played in the course of a play performance; 1289-90
and of the Pavana of 1580 kF85; ۞PaC3; rA + g PP4; lute/t (BO 17); ۞OH6-7, Van den Borren remarks on its ‘sober beauty whose subjects have a natural simplicity’ (V262); there is a set of variations by SWEELINCK ‘Pavana Philippi’ SWn 11/WY8. To form the Philips pavan and galliard, which occur in Morley’s Consort lessons à 6, this F85 is paired with another Galliard based 0on the pavan motive in F87– a truly magnificent pair bcM8-9; ۞DoH5 i-ii; 1291; (313b) 1292
a pair by ALISON is his Quadran Pavan and Galliard M1-2. (273a, 274a) 1293-4
The works of BULL in these forms include ‘Chromatic Pavan & Galliard’, written at the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, a magnificent pair MB xix 87a-b/ MB19d 1-2; ۞Q14-15; PE97 gives a useful extract of the pavan; 1295-6
and his ‘brilliant and quite easy’ ‘Lord Lumley’s pavane and galliard F41, F11/ MB xix 129a-b; ۞Py9-10 and Caldwell advises a measure which would perhaps fit a theatre’s needs; he writes ‘The tempo of the pavane is slower than ever, the first two strains are of eleven bars each, so that extended passages in semi-quavers could be cut’ (CDe 194). 1297; (491) 1298
The outstanding contribution to this genre made by GIBBONS has the justifiably famous ‘The Lord of Salisbury’ pavan and galliard at the apex, remarkable for their pathetic style and boldness of harmony (BS274). (336b i-ii) 1299-1300
Perhaps one of the best known pairs is that of FARNABY, that comprising ‘Giles Farnaby his Dream’ (pavan) F194/ MB xxiv 50; ۞Go2: 5; rS + k HU3; and ‘His Rest’ (galliard) 1301; (856) 1302
and these together with ‘His Humour’ F196 acts as a fine suite of Elizabethan dances. (147) 1303 (1526)
Van den Borren finds the ‘Sacred End pavan by MORLEY and its companion galliard by BAXTER ‘a beautifully shaped pair’ involving no virtuosity even in rapid passages (except perhaps in the lute part) MB xl 30-31; ۞DoH11 i-ii/ ۞PaM20-21; also in a version for broken consort RL6/ spLPM207 i;۞BreF7 i-ii/ ۞MsE ii 16-17. 1304-5
The important and prolific contribution to this keyboard repertoire by BYRD with its attendant identification problems suggests the need here for a concordance of his Pavan and Galliard sets (and the few separate examples). MB represents nos 1-53 in MB xxvii; and 54-120 in MB xxviii.
In treating of this most significant genre of the Elizabethan period, a good deal of space is devoted to Byrd whose important contribution could well be considered too concert-like and hence not easily adaptable for use in the theatre. Truncation could well be considered almost sacrilegious, nevertheless it would seem rather like omitting Shakespeare from a literary survey to leave out a consideration of Byrd when thinking about the music repertoire of the Elizabethan and early Jacobean era. Hence it might be worth considering the possibility of fading out after the opening measure.
key title F BY MB
a 1 BY ‘third pavane’ and galliard 252-3 14-15 14 [308f i-ii, 1314-5]
2 Pavane and 2 galliards (The Earl of Salisbury) Parthenia 13-14 15 [1307-8]
3 Pavane MB lv 16
4 Pavane 23 17
5 [spurious NB181] Pavane = Holborne H35 174 99
Bb A Pavion by Mr Bird (Drexel 5612) 23a [1306]
C 1 BY ‘fourth pavane’ and galliard 16-17 30
2 BY ‘sixth pavane’ and galliard. Kinborough Good 20-21 32 [1316-7]
3 BY ‘seventh pavane’ (Drexel 5612, p 140, 142) 33
4 Galliard (Mistress Mary Brownlow) (Parthenia) 34
5 [spurious NB 181] Pavane = Holborne H35 256 101
c 1 BY ‘first pavane’ and galliard 167-8 10-11 29 [1309; 241e]
2 BY ‘fifth pavane’ and galliard 18-19 31
D Galliarda after Harding 122 55 [859]
d 1 Pavane 254-5 52
2 Galliard 164 53
Pavane after Dowland Lachrymae (۞CmD v 17) 54
F 1 Pavane and Galliard ‘Bray’ 91-2 59 [1310-1]
2 Pavane and Galliard ‘Tregian’ 93-4 60
G 1 Quadran pavan and galliard on the passamezzo moderno 133-4 70
2 BY ‘second pavane’ and galliard 12-13 71
3 Pavane 72
4 (of doubtful authenticity – by Thomas Byrd?) 73
5 Echo (anon., attrib. to William Byrd) 114 [765-6]
6 BY ‘seventh pavane’ Pavan: Canon two parts in one 22 74
7 Lady Monteagles Pavan 294 75
8 Pavan 76
9 Galliard 77
10 Galliard for the Victory 95 [533]
g 1 BY ‘ninth pavane’ and galliard: ‘ Passamezzo pavan and galliard’ (Passing measures pavane & galliard) 56-7 24-25 2 [1312-3]
2 BY ‘tenth pavane’ and galliard. Sir William Petrie 39-40 3
3 165-6 4
Among these a ‘splendid’ but rather elaborate Bb Pavion is singled out (CDe 125); ۞Mo v 8 1306
and perhaps more practical in the theatre context, ‘The Earl of Salisbury’ pavane and galliard both in two short strains, each repeated without variation’ (CDe 103), and ‘imprinted with a noble melancholy’ (V274-5); MB xxvii 15a-b; ۞CamP9/ ۞CwM26/ ۞Mo ii 15-16; rSATB Schott 11513; galliard rS + k HU6; gRZ ii 8; dance with steps BYe 1-2. 1307-8
The Pavane F167 in C minor [c1]; ۞Mo vi 3; is ‘imbued with intense gravity in contrast to the dancing rhythms of the Galiardo’ F168 (CDe 103). 1309
Pavana Bray and its Galliard F91-2 are superbly constructive and introspective (cf. commentary in SP141) MB xxviii 59; ۞Mo v 10-11; also in a lute version by Cutting (BB); ۞BreG16-17/ ۞FG ii 12/ ۞OH14-15/ ۞Py20-21; see especially SP141. 1310-1
Caldwell describes his rather elaborate Passingmeasures pavan and galliard F56-7 as the supreme example of *passamezzo antico in England (CDh 492, also recommended by Naylor (Fn114-5); 1312-3
Naylor (Fn56) rates the Pavan F252 as one of the best dances of the period, though its length might perhaps deter its use in the theatre, (308f ) 1314
and Thurston Dart considers its Galliard F253 one of the most eloquent. (308f ii) 1315
The ‘Kinborough Good’ pavane has a wonderfully poignant opening statement and this first strain could suit the stage, though its companion Galliard given in RV 10 would be too elaborate in this context MB xxvii 32a-b/ BY20-21/ Bya; ۞Cap2-3/ ۞Mo vi 13-14. 1316-7
The dignified haunting Pavane and Galliard à 6 viols in C (GB-Ob Mus. Sch. e 64-9) is recommended by Cathy Gaskell cw17:15a-b/ S&B B362; ۞Cap5-6/ ۞FG ii 4-5/ ۞RoR1-2; rAAATTB OL112 and described in notes to a recording as superbly wrought examples of ‘art’ dance music. 1318-9
In addition to the many HOLBORNE pieces already mentioned in the survey, associated with the pavane [J61] H11 is the galliard [J133] H12 which make up a well-wrought thoughtful set: rSSATB Hb iii 2/ DQ5; rST + g RD16; galliard alone ۞Q12 i. (34a i) 1320; 1321
A pair from one of the musical family in the employment James I, Augustine BASSANO appears in QuinEssential’s Sackbut and Cornett Ensemble; in Pavanes and Galliards à 5 Nova NM201 (Royal Wind music, vol. 1; galliard alone ۞Hc22/ ۞Q16-17. 1322-3
pavaniglia see *Spanish pavane
pedlar’s songs see Street cries
pipe and tabor a simple flute, a three holed pipe (descant recorder which has nine holes could stand in) and side drum blown and played by one person; essentially for folk dance. In the folk dance revival the concertina has been used, this substitution being initiated by William Kimber jr., the leading light of the Headington *Morris. See also *drum and fife
plain-song allusions H5 III ii 8, H8 III ii 4-8 the essential tune itself to which an extempore *descant might be added (N40); (where such a contrapuntal line or lines were so printed this would be referred to as *prick song); another meaning could be to sing without any elaboration, cf. Bottom’s song in MND III i 134 refers to the undecorated call of the ‘plain-song cuckoo gray’. There is a piece for 2 lutes by ROBINSON entitled ‘Plaine song,’ (1075) 1326
(The word does not appear to have any connection with present-day usage for Gregorian chant).
plaint see *funeral music and laments
point of war short trumprt signal as in 2H4 i 52
Polish motif allusions to Polacks in Ham include I i 63, II ii 63. In an English source appears an attractive tune entiled ‘The King of Poland’ appears in RE 12 iii 1326A
Spread among collections of German dances are a number of Polish examples, some of which are issued by Bernard Thomas in various editions including one from a set published in 1601 by DEMANTIUS ‘The King of Poland’s dance’ rSSAT/A BC ii 28; 1327
and a ‘King of Poland dance’ based on the tune ‘Bruder Conrads Tanzmass’ rSATB TR24; 1328
of other Polish dances, one à 5 is printed in full in NOHM iv 599; ۞Cl 9: 1 1329
and another is available as a recorder quartet ATTB TD13 1330
There are also Polish dances in the sets by HAUSSMANN: Venusgarten 1602, one of which, no 26, exists in a keyboard version by SWEELINCK ‘Poolsche dans’ SWn 12; 1331
Haussmann’s Rest von Polnischen Tantzen à 5 1603 in LPM EML225 (rSSATB/ 2co+3sa) and (also from LPM come eight dances from this set (Renaissance Band series no 6) HG 1-8; 1332-9
and from Moeck (587-8) Tantze nach teutscher und polnischer Art à 4, 1606 rSS/AA/TT/B 1340
Praetorius, Michael Terpsichore 1612 provides fine harmonizations à 4-6 mostly by Praetorius (with a few by Antoine Emeraud, dancing master to the Duke of Brunswick) in this very large collection mainly of French dances supplied by Francisque Caroubel, though a thin vein runs through of pieces from other countries. These include seven *Spanish dances P26-31 & 33 whose stately melodies and their moving harmonisation will not easily fade from the mind: three settings of a tune, as ‘L’Espagnolette’ à 5 P26; Spagnoletta à 4 P27 and P28 (a version from the Netherlands); 1341 (1464)
‘Pavane de Spaigne’ à 5 P29 and à 4 P30, from a host of settings by many other composers of the time based on surely one of the finest yet simplest melodies of the 16th century; (142a) 1342 (1466)
‘La *Canarie’ à 4 P31, likewise existing in many other settings; (609) 1343
and the plaintive and delicate ‘La *Sarabande’ P33 à 5 would lend itself as a haunting *lullaby. (1050) 1344 (1467)
England is represented by three *Courantes à 4, one, P152, based on the tune of the ballad ‘Light o’ love’; (236a) 1345
and another, P123 a setting of the jig tune ‘Packington’s Pound’; (303b, 680) 1346
the jaunty ‘La Bourree’ P32 à 4, with its attractive hemiola rhythm, is based on the *country dance ‘The Parson’s farewell’; (712) 1347
while P157 stems from the same *danceable music as DOWLAND ‘Mrs Winter’s jump’ (685) 1348
In Terpsichore there is a series of *Voltas, a slightly risqué dance form which popular legend associates with Queen Elizabeth, form a valuable collection; P210 à 5, will be familiar from the setting by BYRD in G major 1349 (1531)
and another Volta has a pretty tune with an ‘English folky’ ring to it, P243 à 4. 1350 (1535)
pricksong contrapuntal music (e.g. *anthems, motets, madrigals) as opposed to monody or *‘plain song’; hence the imaginative allusion in R&J II iv 20-23 to Tybalt’s sophisticated fighting style, ‘as you sing pricksong, [he] keeps time, distance and proportion’
Prince’s …this is part of a good many titles of dance music from the turn of the century, for Prince Henry, son of James I was a keen dancer. He died as a youth in 1612 (450, 535, 727, 1016, 1153, 1370)
processional music as needed in H8 I iv 108, IV i 55; JC I ii 0-2; T.A. V iii
Solemn and majestic pieces which could be effective as processionals include the superbly harmonized statement of the tune ‘Loth to depart’ by FARNABY; (133) 1351
TALLIS ‘O ye tender babes’, in origin a secular part song, extant for keyboard MB i 83/ MB1s; see also ML xxxvii (1957) 49; score 52 (Denis Stevens reconstruction with words underlaid as a chorus appears on p. 61 of his published commentary on the Mulliner Book); 1352
and his short instrumental very dignified setting of the hymn verse ‘Jam lucis orto sidere’ MB i 8 which would make an effective processional. (Note the collection of his 9 Psalm tunes, ed by Robert Illing for rSATB with voice ad lib.) sSchott 11505) 1353
A stately *pavan such as ‘Heart’s ease’ could prove effective; for though the pavan is a dance, its essentially dignified mood would lend itself to use as a processional piece; (281a) 1354
another which could be effective is ‘Queen Elizabeth her galliard’ by DOWLAND which opens with great majesty (872) 1355
Two processional pavans which Mabel Dolmetsch selects as ideally processional are ‘La Rote du Rode’ from the Attaignant Dançerye 1530 (1134) 1356
and another pavan set by Gervaise probably from his Bk 3 1557 kDF84-5; in LPM AD3; 1357
she also suggests ‘Souche’s maske’ perhaps suited in a less sober context (225a, 1227) 1358
Other pieces in processional style are the Susato setting à 4 of ‘Mille regrets’ (1238) 1359
and PRAETORIUS ‘Passameze pour les cornetz’ à 6. (1128, 1234) 1360
see John Long on the ceremonial use of trumpets and drums in marches and processions (LH201-3) see also *cornetts, *dead march, *lament; *march, *pavan
proportion R2 V v 41 ‘How sour sweet music is, When time is broke, and no proportion kept!’ Naylor comments on this use of the term (N32-4)

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