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This incorporates an attempt to follow up any kind of musical allusion in the play texts and stage directions which relate to dance and other musical forms. The examples chosen to represent musical forms are mainly by Elizabethan and Jacobean Court composers, often anonymous settings, here singled out for such qualities as concision and memorability. It should not prove a hindrance to their performance that pieces in this repertoire based on tunes and motifs from the popular music of the time for the most part was written for virginals, a gentle instrument unsuited to the stage and certainly inappropriate in open air performances. Much of this fine repertoire has been adapted for consorts of recorders or other instruments, and selection of titles for inclusion in this survey has often been related to the material drawn to my attention by the enthusiasm of the compilers of anthologies.

Works cited where a composer is not given are anonymous; in general, it is such pieces, especially those from the lute books, which will often prove most apt for use as stage music.

Full bibliographical citations (together with an incipit in musical notation) including those for related music in alternative settings are to be found in the preceding play survey within the serial number sequence 1-417. If a music suggestion has not been allocated to a particular point in a play, bibliographical information is given here in the NOTES, and if there is more than one numerical reference, see under the serial number in bold type within square brackets.

Included here also are various types of signals that may be encountered, as for instance those which might lend themselves to distinguish one particular faction or ‘house’ from another as they occur in the course of the plays.

see under word following the asterisk for detailed entry in these NOTES.



madness characteristic musical expression occurs in the form of song snatches (also the ‘normal mode of communication’ of the Fool) (Gurr 311) as in Ham, KL, Oth and ToS (44-9, 120-137, 251, 294-6)
madrigals these Tudor part-songs, (alluded to in MW III i 22), a noble, charming genre, though as a form generally unfitted to the stage, but see *consort songs, *May games. A useful set of 10 madrigals arranged for recorder trio rSSA is edited by Gwylim Beechey. Schott 12310 (1990).
magic see *supernatural effects
majesty an ‘Air’ by BULL is à 6 bar tune which, although later adapted, will yet be recognizable to all British subjects (see incipit) 1117
march normally for drums alone, though trumpets also appear in stage directions.
CM423-9 offers four ceremonial examples, suggested instrumentation: recorder consort, or 2 cornetts/trumpets, 2 sackbuts/trombones and drums.
Perhaps the best known march tune (attributed to) a named composer of the time is BYRD ‘The Earl of Oxford’s marche’ in a broken consort setting by Morley of whose lively descant part for lute is particularly noted by Diana Poulton (DP167-8), and has been issued for 2co+2sa+drum CM423-5. the tune was also used in a lute piece by DOWLAND,‘Lord Strang’s march’, D65 (112, 219b, 520) 1118
and a number of others occur in the *‘Battle’ music sequence attributed do him, including ‘The March of Foot’ CM426-7 characterized by percussive major chords, whose opening statement seems particularly suited to use on the stage; (522) 1119
‘The March of the horsemen’ (523) 1120
‘The Trumpets,’ a march in the form of a long *flourish; (524) 1121 (1506)
and ‘Flute and drum’ (14) 1122
‘March to the fight’ (528) 1123 (1504)
LH18 suggests a source: the lute ms. (CH f57) which has a simple march which could be used for instance in AW III v 37 for ‘march afar off’ 1124
N&201/ N41 to satisfy the stage directions in 1H6 III ii 32 ‘English march’ and ‘French march’ gives notation for an ‘ancient English drum march’ so described in 1610 (78, 163) 1125
which is followed by the drum rhythms of a ‘Batterie de tambour: Gardes de la Marine’ in 4/4 time, which though printed in 1670 could possibly be of earlier provenance. (109) 1126
A tuneful piece entitled ‘French march 1660’ in 3/4 time is given by Kines which Banke suggests might suit Aufidius’ Banquet in Cor IV v. (26a) 1127
Pieces by distinguished composers in this genre, as well as those by Byrd already mentioned are by PRAETORIUS ‘Passamezze pour les cornetz’ à 6 P288, ۞NeP 11; brilliantly arresting, if a little brash; 1128
and another à 6, P286 is played on 2 cornetts and 4 sackbuts on ۞EmP 1 1128A
and for keyboard, FARNABY ‘The new Sa-hoo’, with its jaunty march like rhythm F148/ MB xxiv 45; ۞Go2:6; 1129
this is related to both a lute piece by GUÉDRON (which has also been attributed to VALLET) 1615 ‘Est-ce Mars’ ۞PaD5, which appeared in the Board lute book as ‘The French tune’ t(BO f25r 75); and also a set of keyboard Variations ‘Courante de Mars’ by SWEELINCK SWn 3; Peters 4645a: 9 (827) 1130
see also *dead march; *drums, *flourish; *retreat; *sennet
marriage ceremonies, see *wedding music
masque (maske) and antimasque (antic) The masque is an essentially courtly dance (MM141) (for which the country dance equivalent is the *morris with its related *jigs, sword dances and *horn-pipes), while the antic, anticke masque or antimasque was a comic and/or acrobatic masqued dance popular in origin. Baskervill notes that it was characteristic of the antic dance that it should express the nature of the dancers – animals, supernatural beings, or grotesques of any kind’ (BS367).
An antimasque would have been performed by professional actors and dancers as one in a sequence as a contrast among formal masque dances (WP3).
In the stage context an antimasque could occur as a ‘grotesque scene performed as an introduc- tion or interlude in marked contrast to the main allegorical action’ (CDh 455).
Peter Walls mentions the ‘stop-go character and idiosyncratic structure in the ‘Witches’ dances’ antimasques in Mac IV i (WP136) (160, 162) 1131-2
The masque dance, ‘Johnson’s Flatt masque’ is now attributed to the lutenist composer John JOHNSON, the father, (rather than his son Robert), composer of lute songs used in the Shakespeare plays (à 2 LM37: 24v-25r, 77v) SA88/ LMw i 4; 1133
Masques occur, particularly in the later plays suggesting the intervention of the supernatural, as Winifred Maynard remarks, ‘In WT, Tem and H8 masque is an element of the play’s essential medium, its presence is functional and organic as well as spectacular’ (ME216).
The list which follows attempts to locate the occurrence of such formal dance occuring in the plays.
A&C II vii 122-130 antimasque following ‘Come thou monarch of the vine’ [11]
As V iv 106-128 Enter Hymen with Rosalind and Celia as themselves [21]
Cym V v 123-207 Chanting ancestors [33]
H8 I iv 49-112 Enter…masquers, habited like shepherds [103-105]
IV ii 82-96 Queen Katharine’s Vision [109]
LLL V i 146 antimasque of the Worthies who dance ‘The *hay’ [149]
ii 156 Enter blackamoors with music…disguised as Russians, and masked [151]
209-210 [Music plays] [152]
Mac IV i 106, 128 Hautboys… A Show of eight kings [161]
43, 148 The witches’ dances [160, 162]
MND II i 57 The trains of Oberon and Titania [194-5]
V i 354-5 Bergamasque [214]
V ii 21-52 The fairies dance [217]
Mu II i 85 Entry of masqued revellers [238]
Per II iii 107 The Knights and Ladies dance [257]
Tem see especially the notes which precede the suggestions for music in the play.
IV i 59-75 Soft music. A Masque. Enter Iris [310]
106-17 Song of Juno and Ceres [311]
118 A masque. Soft musick [312]
138 Reapers and Nymphs’ dance [314]
Tim I ii 0, 132 The ‘Love feast’. Mask of Ladies as Amazons [317-8]
WT IV i 60 Masque
iii 348 The sheep-shearing scene: Dances of Florizel and Perdita Rustics habited like Satyrs. They dance (antimasque) [415]
Mabel Dolmetsch suggests that the processional ‘pavenne’ ‘La Rote du Rode’ from Attaignant’s first collection of Dançeries 1530 as ‘well suited to some festival occasion, or it could be used as an “intrada” for the characters in a masque’ (DF 85-6) LPM AD1; gCR1 1134 (1356)
138 masque dances are contained in the ms. compiled by Sir Nicolas *Le Strange (1603-55) [GB- Lbl Add. MS. 10444 part 2] (LM) although he presented only treble and bass lines. Peter Walls brings our attention to the few among them which are really distinctive and memorable (WP126 and see below). We are indebted to the expatriate publisher William BRADE for his masque dance collection of 1617 (BN) which incorporated a number of these, expanding the instrumental group to an effective consort of five members, making them particularly of service for use in the course of the plays. See Composer index
Robert JOHNSON composed for both theatre and Court between 1608-17 though authorship of much of his work is not acknowledged in the sources, but J. P. Cutts has carried out much research in this area making attribution where possible. A good number of the graceful masques in LM can now be attributed either to him, COPERARIO or CAMPION (see below). A selection of eight dances à 5 rSSATB by Coperario and Johnson OL173
The three pieces associated with the name of FARNABY F198-9 and 209 entitled ‘A Masque’ in the Fitzwilliam virginal book are described by van den Borren (V331) as full of sobriety and refinement, all three having ‘the grave and serene feeling of the *pavan.’ The first of these, F198 he finds the most interesting. In fact the last, known as ‘Cuparee’ in LM50, is by COPERARIO and was used as a dance in the ‘Masque of Flowers’ in 1613, while Farnaby’s keyboard elaboration appears as F209 (see 1143 below). (308e i-iii) 1135-7
HUME’s masque dance ‘The Earl of Sussex’s delight,’ is for 2 lyra and bass viols MB ix 130/ SA233 1138
Certain masque dances appeared in various sources in which each may well be differently identified; among these are some which have been thought worthy of inclusion in anthologies: the expressive (WP135) ‘Standing masque: Fairest nymph’ whose short opening phrase is especially graceful (LM102: 45r, 94v) LMw i 12/ SA155. This also exists as a lute piece kSA270-271; ۞Wt23 and in keyboard versions by GIBBONS as ‘A Maske’ MB xx 43/ GHg16; ۞Py2; in the Board lute book as a ‘Grays Inn Mask’ t(BO 38v 149) and in another ms. as ‘Ye fairest Nymphs Ye valleys’ MP (f36, 39) 17/ SA271; tune SB137; C319-320 gives a text for this as a ‘funeral song’ (See WP 135 for source list); 1139
others are ‘The King’s mistress’ (LM108: 46v, 96r) LMw i 13/ SA161; rSAA LMh13/ rA + g LMz13 1140
and ‘The Noble man’ attributed to Robert JOHNSON (LM55: 30v, 81r) CU18/ SA106; rA + k BJ10; rA + g LMz 8; for lute SA361 and thought to have been part of the incidental music to a lost comedy by Tourneur (1612); there is also an arrangement à 3 (treble and bass viols + continuo) by Johann SCHOP SA262; ۞PaH10/ ۞Wt12 1141
There are a number of masque dances connected with the Inns of Court, the so-called ‘Gray’s Inn masques’ à 2 in LM (see Title index), in addition to that mentioned in connection with ‘Mad Tom’ (LM99: 44r, 93r-94r) tune RE47 ix (130b) 1142
as well as a masque dance sequence now attributed to COPERARIO comprising:
‘The First’ [entry dance] (LM50: 28v, 80v), there as ‘Cuperaree or Graysin’. Peter Walls describes it as the best known masque tune, admiring its evenness, balance and general sense of dignity and its rather beautiful melodic line (WP 133, 135). (308e iii, 1137) 1143
‘The Second’ [main dance] (LM51: 29r, 80v) SA102; rS + k LMb iii 1; à 5 (BN37) as ‘Der Comoedianten Tantz’ BNt / LMw i 8. Walls mentions its bright D major tonality, uncomplicated melody and robust rhythms (WP135). 1144
‘The Third’ [exit dance] (LM133: 102v, 103r) LMw i 20/ SA186; à 5 (BN38) as ‘Heynen sein Tantz’ SA276. 1145
Others with which these might be confused are (LM91) ‘Gray’s Inn Antic masque’ SA144, 1146
another (LM23: 20v, 74r) SA74 ‘The Second of the Lords;’ kMPb (p. 31) 86 as ‘Gray’s Inn masque, (BO 39v 154) and à 5 in Brade’s collection as ‘Der Königinnen Intrade’ (BN7) GE1146 1147
and yet another ‘Gray’s Inn masque’ (LM134: 53v-54r, 103v) SA187 1148
The contribution of Robert JOHNSON to the masque dance repertoire is now acknowledged (see Composer index); opportunities arise for instance where the clown could step it out in TNK III v using the ‘Baboon’s dance’ à 2 (LM27); (386k, 485) 1149
while his ‘Satyrs’ masque’ could be used for WT IV iii 348 whose memorable music Sabol notes was probably used in the Jonson masque ‘Oberon’ in 1611 (see also Cutts in ML xxxvi (1955) 110-25). Peter Walls singles this out as a ‘superb example of its kind which has all the defining charac- teristics of antimasque dances, several changes of metre, with triple rhythms before the final section.’ (WP317-9); (415a) 1150
and in Mac IV i 132 the ‘antic round’ where the metrical changes in the music to ‘2nd Witch’s dance’ can perhaps suggest their ambiguous forecasts which lead to such dire events. (162, 1132) 1151
Of these Macbeth dances Stephen Orgel comments that it is difficult in a modern production to imagine doing ‘the full scale grotesque ballet,’ at the same time he notes how in performances after Shakespeare’s time the audience eagerly awaited the ‘antic’ as a central feature of the play (SS lii (1999) 143-153; cf Chan 197-208 for further commentary and details of sources).
Autolycus could perhaps escape the bear’s hug in WT III iii 57 in the anonymous ‘Bear’s dance’which Mary Chan notes was used in a Ben Jonson masque Augurs in 1622 (402) 1152
There is a set of three dances à 2 referred to as ‘The First/ Second /Third of the Princes’ in Le Strange (LM135-7:f54r, 103v-104r) SA188-190. Peter Walls describes them as ‘cheerful pieces and fine examples of main masque dances (WP136). They were also issued by BRADE in consort settings à 5 (BN31-33) SA252-4/ BNt ; the first, ‘Der erste Mascharada des Pfaltzgraffen’, in the Board lute book as ‘Prince Henry’s mask’ (BO 28v 92) ۞KnM2; ۞MgO 2, 18 (727) 1153
the second, (‘Der ander Mascharada’ à 5 in Brade) also appeared as an Alman in The Fitzwilliam virginal book kF202, in Board as ‘The Prince’s mask’ (453) 1154
and the third, a particularly tuneful piece, is in Brade as ‘Der dritte Mascharada’ ۞KnM4; ۞MgO 30, in Board as ‘Lady Elizabeth;s mask (BO 30v 103) 1155
A set of three — entry, main and exit — ‘Temple’ dances (LM39-41) dating from 1613 is suggested by John Cutts as suited to the Reapers’ dance in Tem Act IV. (313g i-iii) 1156-8
A number of (mostly untitled) antimasques appeared in Adson’s Courtly masquing ayres 1621 à 5. These are much admired by Peter Holman (HV189). Of these, no.4 ‘Essex Anticke Masque’ falls into short sections, each expressing a change of mood AC4/ SA242; (in origin used in Jonson’s masque ‘Hymenaei’ 1606); also in *Le Strange à 2 (LM93: 42r, 92 r) SA145 which could provide an effective overture to precede a play’s performance, 1159
and no 19 ‘for cornets and sagbuts’ AC19/ SA302; bq ACq 1; ۞Hc 17 ii, is also in *Le Strange à 2 (LM81 f38v-39r, 89v) SA134 as ‘The Bull masque’ (i.e. by John BULL) 1160
Peter Walls alluding to the First and Second ‘Temple Anticke’ masques (WP141) describes the opening two bars of the Second as suggesting a sudden entry of the antimasque characters before the dance begins à 2 (LM 122-3) SA175-6; à 5 Adson AC8-9/ SA300-1; the score of the quirky no. 1 also appears in WP 145-6 1161-2
From this considerable further masque repertoire, Walls singles out (WP125) the ‘simple, effective and beautiful’ ‘Williams his love’ (LM110) LMw i 15/ SA163; rSAA/T LMh 15; à 5 rA + g RD29; Adson à 5 AC13/ SA292; also for lute or lyra viol SA291 1163
and ‘The cuckolds masque’ (LM73: 36v, 87v) SA126 / WP144; à 4 (described in WP136-7). Strains 3-4 from this are in Brade à 5 (BN45) SA282 as ‘Rosen im Frühlinge, oder ‘Prim Rosen’ 1164
MB xl includes a good deal of masque material in various scorings, including two pieces of masque music by LUPO ‘Shows and nightly revels’ for SB, lute and bass viol ELS ii 21: 3/ SA4, and ‘Time that leads the fatal round’ ELS ii 21: 5/ SA6; both were set by Rosseter as dances for broken consort à 6: LM54, 28/ MB xl 33-4/ SA412, 105; no 2: ۞DoH10/ ۞NeE 13 1165-6
Andrew Ashbee draws our attention to a short masque dance, ‘Näglein Blumen’ by BATEMAN set for 5 viols as ‘light in style and very attractive’ BN 44/ LM 114 / LMw i 16/ LMb 17; rSSATB BNd8 1166A
For detailed background and descriptions see David Lindley The Court masque. Manchester UP, 1984, and Court masques 1605-1640. World’s Classics, 1995; see also Gustave Reese Music of the Renaissance, rev. ed. 1956, p. 882.
matachins earliest British allusion, 1586; alternative name for the sword dance ‘Les *Bouffons’
May games, Whitsun games; maypole dances see especially Baskervill (BS); see also under *morris, *seasons
Some examples of music which relate to these high jinks:
‘Joan to the Maypole’, lute (Drexel 5609 p156, also in kMP58 as ‘The Morris’, is the same ‘charming’ and very simple virginals piece’ (V310) ‘The King’s morisco’ F247, which also exists both as a masque dance à 2 attributed to COPERARIO and in a Brade setting à 5 as ‘Satyrn Tanz’; (353a) 1167 (1185)
‘The Maypole dance at Gray’s Inn’ an antimasque used in the revels after ‘The masque of the Mountebanks’1618 (LM103: 45r, 95r) SA156; 1168
and there is another Maypole dance in RE 180 vi 1168A
The Maypole song ‘Come ye young men’ originates in words added to the ‘ Staines *morris’; (276c) 1169
and two sprightly and entertaining Ayres and Phantasticke Sprites à 3 1608 (TTB) by WEELKES exude a carnival atmosphere, ‘Strike it up tabor’ which features the maypole S&B EMS13: 18/ OBEM 41/ S&B W37; ۞DeC4; rSST TE12 1170
and ‘The ape, the monkey and baboon’ in S&B EMS 13: 10/ MI 84; 1171
Another from this set ‘Since Robin Hood’ features Shakespeare’s *clown, Kempe who after leaving his stage company took the morris to extremes and treated it as a one man show. (39) 1172
The ever popular madrigal of MORLEY ‘Now is the month of maying’à 5 (SATTB) has much allusion to the carryings-on at the games including merry lads inviting the nymphs to play ‘Barley break’ to the sound of the bagpipes EMS4: / OBEM27/ PE74-6/ S&B M403 (and à 3 (SSA) S&B W93); SS/AA/T BE5; this piece was also arranged by Rosseter for broken consort: vn + t-r + l + ci + continuo + b-v MB xl 28; ۞CwM7/ ۞DoH12/ ۞Ke 10/ ۞MsE ii 26/ ۞NeE 1; rSSAT/AB BC ii 18; tune MK33; 1173
and his rightly famous light-hearted madrigal à 5 ‘My bonny lass she smileth’ SATTB with its nonsense ‘fa-la’ refrain could perhaps find a place at the games S&B M407; EMS OBEM26/ HM159. (Also in version à 3 (SSA) S&B W94). 1174
A small recorder anthology by Layton Ring, ‘May madrigals’ rSSATB spUE12637K (1963), has one each by MORLEY, ‘Now is the month of maying’ mentioned above (1173) 1175
by GIBBONS ‘Now each flow’ring bank of May’ à 5 EMS5: 12; 1176
and WEELKES 1598 ‘In pride of May’ EMS10: 11. 1177
Consort songs are by NICHOLSON ‘In a merry May morn’ MB xxii 50/ WE iii 2 1178 (1441)
and MELVILL 1612 ‘O lusty May’ MB xv 35/ GR226; ۞E Nh 12 ii/ ۞EsU 28/ ۞NeE20 1179
see also under *Robin
maypole, see above under n’May games’, see also *morris and the Title index
mean alto or tenor voice, that is between highest and lower voices ‘he can sing a mean most meanly’ LLL V ii 328-9; ‘There wanteth but a mean to fill your song, The mean is drowned by your unruly bass’ TG I ii 92-3; ‘*three-man song-men all,…but they are most of them means and basses’ WT IV ii 43-4
measure meaning a courtly dance in stately style, originally the English term for *basse danse which by c1600 had become the *pavan (cf N 140); (cf John M. Ward ‘The English measure’ in Early Music v.14 no 1,(Feb. 1986) pp.15-21; see also BS340; BR39, 115).
The earliest British allusion is traced to 1584; in Shakespeare often in conjunction with a pun on the literal meaning: As V iv 44, 179, 193; H5 V ii 134; H8 I iv 106; LLL IV iii 381; V ii 185; Mu II i 65; although as many as 17 references – many of them plays on the word – occur among the plays Per II iii 104; R2 I iii 291, III iv 7, 19; R3 I i 8, and most familiarly Mu II i 76. In R&J I iv 10 and I v 53 the dance actually takes place on the stage.
An example is given with description and steps in DF53-4, there as ‘A Measure’ with keyboard arrangement by Arnold Dolmetsch CM384-5, 1179A
though perhaps the most familiar title is ‘My Lord of Essex measure’ also known as ‘Tintelore d’Angleterre’. 1180 (105b)
melancholy see *fancy, *farewell, *lament Notable examples of expressing this sentiment are the ‘wonderfully plangent’ Pavan (CDh485) [Ja3, the first (?) of two in] C minor of Robert JOHNSON; 1181
the opening strain of HOLBORNE ‘Image of melancholy’ is particularly effective; (239a ii)
and GIBBONS ‘The Lord of Salisbury pavane’ is ‘characterized by deep melancholy and grief’ (NOHM iv 633, where this fine virginals piece is quoted in full); (336b)
and almost all the ayres of DOWLAND, the quintessential melancholic, could qualify for mention here, for as well as the lute song ‘Lasso mia vita’ 1612 EL LS4: 11; with consort ۞BoEs ii 1b/ ۞CmD iv 11/ ۞RoC5, many of his fine lugubrious titles will be found throughout this survey 1182
(see Composer index)
military signals and other martial music, see *alarum, *charge, *dead march, *drums, *excursions, *flourish, *march, *parley, *retreat, *sennet, *trumpet, *tucket, *waits
See MM chapter 2 which is devoted to this subject
minstrel Mercutio resents being so described, a status fitted to such as Autolycus, a mere ballad *singer
moon evocation of moonshine and the starlit night with ‘the music of the house’ in MoV V i 51-68
Morley, Thomas probably a friend of Shakespeare, who in this context is associated with the promotion of the *broken consort. His collection Consort Lessons (M1-25) published in 1599, has both original works and arrangements of pieces by Alison, Byrd, Dowland and Philips for this typically Elizabethan medium mixing strings, both bowed and plucked with wind instruments.
morris; morisco first British allusion to ‘morris’ traced, 1458 and to ‘morisco’ 1561. Allusions in the plays: ‘a Whitsun morris-dance’ H5 II iv 25; ‘a morris for *May day’ AW II ii 24; ‘I have seen him caper upright like a wild Morisco shaking the bloody darts as he his bells’ 2H6 III i 364-5; ‘the nine-men’s morris’ MND II i 98, and ‘Trip and go, my sweet’ LLL IV ii 142 (see 1191 below).
This dance was a popular feature of the *May games often performed with blackened faces. Manifold characterizes the dance as ‘a popular equivalent of the courtly masquing dance, with its related jigs, sword dances and *horn-pipes’ (MM141). Such a dance is ‘The wild morris RE153 i 1183
Baskervill describes the dance in *TNK III v: ‘six couples perform a dance which is called ‘a morris’ and includes typical characters taken from the *May games, but its tone is that of the *country dance’ and notes the use of the term ‘morris’ for any sort of dance occurring in the course of the games (BS362, 364). Cecil Sharp Morris Book, Pt 1, p.50/ C130 describes how the English morris was performed. See also Julia Sutton’s notes added to Orchésographie ARe229-230.
Chappell (C283) refers to a Dutch collection (c.1622-34) which includes an ‘Engelsche Klocke- Dans’ the title alluding to the morris bells attached to their arms or legs. 1184
Tunes traced with morris in their titles are characteristically lively and tuneful; an excellent example is the anonymous ‘King’s morisco’ existing in many instrumental settings (N151, Fn55) (353a) 1185
The most famous tune occurs in Phalèse collection 1570 as ‘Branle mauresque’, in Susato 1588 as ‘La Mourisque à 4 SU i 11; (Mohrentanz) ۞CwM19, rATTB SUd 6; ۞EmH11/ ۞EmR 1/ ۞Sk30; bq SUj 1; steps DI iii 21; Sk66-9 rST RB1; rS RE9 and in Arbeau as ‘Air de Maurisques’ ARe178 (here Julia Sutton notes that these are not the traditional steps)/ N145-6; ۞Pb12; 4fl ARi12; as ‘A Morisco by Mell’ à 2 + continuo SA329; rSATB + g/k CM331; rSSA/T + k DPi 10; rS + k DX21; ۞BroA 9 i; in ۞Sk30 the piece appears as ‘Queen Elizabeth’s almain’ where it is played by a mixed consort; performance notes Sk66-69 1186
[The tune entitled ‘A Morisco’ in later editions of Playford is quite different ۞Du 10] 1187
The Morisco galliard in WM ii 112 with its characteristic repeated notes appears to be unrelated to any of the others mentioned above. 1188
The antimasque entitled ‘French morris’ (à 2: LM90) SA143; à 5: sopranino recorder + rSAT or 3fl CM331-5 seems likewise unrelated 1189
Brade issued a ‘Blackamoor’s dance’ as a consort à 5 ‘Der Mohren Tanz’ (BN24) (151f) 1190
The allusion in LLL IV ii 142 is to a popular morris dance ‘Trip and go’ a very sprightly galliard. (148) 1191
There are a number of morris dances in Playford’s The English dancing master including ‘Jack Pudding’ or ‘Merry Andrew’ featuring the knock-about leather ‘pudding’ (BS355) and the *hobbyhorse; (706) 1192
the compact and pithy ‘The Chirping of the lark’ known in Elizabethan times as ‘Muscadin’ which in the version by FARNABY is called ‘Kempe’s morris’; (39b) 1193
‘Rufty Tufty’ E70/ Eb85/ RE 25/ SCii / SCd6/ SCt iii 9/ SCg6; ۞BroA13/ ۞Mh25 ii; tune & steps DI iv 20; rS HO5; rSSB; or AT; or SSATB BC ii 27; rSS/AT/A Em3; the ballad for this, as for so many of these excellent dance tunes, appears to have been lost; 1194
and in some supplementary pieces to the ‘Battle music’ attributed to BYRD occurs a ‘Morris’ which Alan Brown dates as about 1630 (incipit of tune in MB xxviii 113b); (531) 1195
A lute piece ‘La Mouresque’ appears in VALLET Le Secret des Muses vol 1 as no. 75 which had been set by Praetorius à 4 P108 1196
See Jonathan Pilling ‘The Wild Morisco or the historical morris’ English dance and song 44 (1984) 26-9, and John M. Ward ‘The morris tune’ Journal of the Lute Society of America xxxix (1986) 294-331.
An article by John M. Ward in JLSoA xxxix (1986) ‘The Morris tune’alludes to various pieces in versions as lute music suited to this purpose, namely WEELKES ‘Since Robin Hood, Maid Marion and little John are gone a’ (Mynshall ms f8v), the anonymous ‘Joan to the Maypole’ (Board lute book f27) and Richard FARNABY ‘Nobody’s Gigge’ (39a, 353a, 355b) 1197-9
mourning see *dead march, *lament
‘Music’ in stage directions often implies that a group of musicians appear on stage (SM29).
F. W. Sternfeld (G6 xv 214) has identified Shakespeare’s use of music in four categories and Christopher R. Wilson has elaborated (W7, which also provides a valuable bibliography)
l. ‘stage music’ where there is a functional need for music: *banquets, *processions, *serenades, *duels and *battles
2. ‘magic music’ including the mesmeric effect especially in the songs: (51, 201, 298-301, 307-316)
3. ‘character music’ for example Autolycus’s songs in WT [292, 296-7] and others which reflect the character singing (170, 333, 339)
4. ‘atmosphere music, emotional climate or tone,’ especially in the last plays, including being effective in place of ‘tedious verbal explanations’ (172-3, 310-1, 316)
‘Music’ may refer to
a) the house band, and in stage directions can have various implications;
b) ‘pure’ or absolute music, especially for consort of viols’ (MM101);
or c) ‘Enter music,’ or ‘Music and tapers’ a band of musicians visible on stage, as opposed to
d) ‘Music in the other room;’ ‘Music within’; or ‘Music afar off’ (not visible to the audience)
‘Music still’; ‘Still music’ depending on context, either the music already playing continues, or for *supernatural effect, such as that which can be produced with a recorder consort as at As V iv 107.
‘Soft music’ especially stringed instruments
‘Sad and solemn music’ see under *dump, *lament, *pavane
‘Solemn music’ suggests use of the organ (MM99/ WT61)
‘*Loud music’ would imply the use of an oboe (shawm or ‘hautboy’) consort; also for occasions where an ‘impression’ is to be made, as at *banquet, *masque or *procession (cf N 169), (trumpets were not used here, being limited to use for military signals or to announce the comings and goings of ‘important’ personages).
Naylor (N 162-3) notes the occurrence of ‘Music’ in stage directions: in comedies 41 times; as symphony or song accompaniment 7; during a speech or dream 8; in wedding processions or pageants 7; for dancing 8 and during a banquet 5,
Cf Alan Dessen and Leslie Thomson A Dictionary of drama 1580-1642. C.U.P., 1999 and BI 253-254
‘Music of the Spheres’ allusions Per V i 225-233, TN III i 113 and most famously MoV V i 58-63.
This is a philosophical concept relating to the sounds in nature which produce harmony said to be related to the movement of the planets. Music which ‘might be heard, if by human ears at all, by one of unusual purity’ (ME221). This can be suggested by the silvery quality which stringed instruments can provide when played in their highest registers See also James Haar’s comment in G7xvii 487-8 where he mentions the occasional musical representations of planetary harmony, as the Florentine intermedium held in 1589 ‘L’armonia delle sfere’. cf Kathi Meyer-Baer Music of the spheres. New York, 1993. See also MJ59 in relation to Mariana at the Moated Grange MfM IV i
Music room Leslie Hotson notes that ‘The citadel of Heaven’ was placed above the stage in the Globe Theatre (HW35), though Richard Hosley in an article on the subject suggests there was probably not (SS 1960,113-123)
musicians the characters who seem to have been able to take on musical roles were Autolycus (WT,) Balthasar (Mu), Amiens (As), Feste (TN), The Clown (in Ham) and Pandarus (T&C). Both Augustine Philips and Richard Cowley appear to have been employed primarily as musicians in Shakespeare’s company (NN60). Peter Holman (HV138) records that Philips left at his death (1605) a bass viol, cittern, bandora and lute and Edward Alleyn (1566626) a chest of six viols, a bandora, cittern and lute. See also *clowns as musicians. Cf. ESI 73 on the status of musicians in Elizabethan times
Stage directions indicate that musicians manifestly appear on stage in Pompey’s galley (A&C), as Cloten’s wooing tactic (Cym), to entertain Falstaff (2H4), to greet Portia on her return to Belmont (MoV), at Hero’s tomb (Mu), and for Sylvia’s serenade (TG). In R&J the musicians taking part are actually named, or at least nicknamed, Catling, Rebeck and Soundpost.
See also Singer-actors
mystery ‘music in Shakespeare is ever the solace and companion of love, and love in Shakespeare the language of mysticism. For this reason the mystic happenings in the plays are accompanied by the theme of music.’ (G Wilson Knight The Crown of Life: essays in the interpretation of Shakespeare’s final plays, 1947/1948, p. 19). See especially *supernatural effects
The use of *‘hautboys’ (shawms) can create a sinister effect, and stage directions can sometimes specify their use to this purpose as in A&C IV iii 11 and Mac IV i 106
Pieces which could help to produce such mysterious atmosphere include, FARNABY ‘Tower Hill’ an short outstanding work which has a ‘haunting’ quality (G7 viii 575); (109e, 987) 1200
STROGERS the short untitled Fantasia-like piece F89/ in MB lxvi with its intriguing false relations; ‘a curious and attractive work’ (V194) which Charlton has adapted for As as a consort song; (16c, 787) 1201
HOLBORNE ‘Countess of Pembroke’s Paradise’ (‘Paradiso’); (138a) 1202 (1474)
and his ‘Patientia’ [J20] H25/ LPM 1033/ MB9 xix 1; ۞Go 1:4; rSS/AA/TB Hc1; HB as lute pavan 17, ۞Ma7; which appears as a Paduana à 5 (SSATB) in Brade Pavans and galliards 1607 LPM TM24; 1203
RAVENSCROFT a gently haunting round ‘Yonder comes a courteous knight’ (66e, 824) 1204
and ‘Adieu fond love’ now attributed to Robert JOHNSON which Anthony Rooley describes as conveying other-worldly atmosphere (in notes to) ۞KyJ23; EL (ii 17) LS 12: 21/ CU48 1205



night evocation though music; see also *birdsong ‘the iron tongue of midnight hath told twelve’ MND V i 361; ‘soft stillness of the night Become the touches of sweet harmony’ MoV V i 56-7 and hearing music, ‘methinks it sounds much sweeter than by day’ MoV V i 105 ‘How silver-sweet lovers’ tongues by night like softest music to attending ears’ R&J II ii 165-7; ‘Visit by night your lady’s chamber-window with some sweet consort…’ TG IV ii (‘Serenade scene’)
Atmospheric lute songs include
CAMPION ‘The cypress curtain of the night’ 1601 EL (i 4/13) LS8: 9/ FL iii 6/ PM i; ۞Cc3/ ۞DeP8; +g DS7 1206
DOWLAND ‘Come ye heavy shades of night’ (10d) 1207
‘Welcome black night’ (22a) 1208
and his short and simple solo lute piece ‘Midnight’ appears in the Board lute book (BO 26v 86), RN23/ D99; ۞CmD viii 15; ۞Mf22/ ۞OD iii 20 1209
night watch *waits band of shawms and other ‘*loud’ instruments (233, 238, 240, 371)
nightingale see *Birdsong and calls
noise, noyse band of ‘*loud’ instruments



oboes, see *shawms (‘hautboys’)
ordnance in stage directions, implies use of *drums
organ the regal or perhaps portative organ, its small size making it suitable for theatre use; it can be remarkably effective where solemn or ‘heavenly’ music is needed.
Orpheus legend the power of music over the unquiet spirit, allusions ‘Orpheus’ *lute was strung with poet’s sinews…’ TG III ii 77-80 cf W9; the song in H8 III i 3-14, ‘Orpheus with his *lute made trees’ cf Christopher Wilson in W9, and most famously Act V sc. 1 of MoV much concerned with this motif, though here without mentioning Orpheus. See also *‘Music of the Spheres’

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