This incorporates an attempt to follow up any kind of musical allusion in the play texts and stage directions which relate to dance and other musical forms. The examples chosen to represent musical forms are mainly by Elizabethan and Jacobean Court composers, often anonymous settings, here singled out for such qualities as concision and memorability. It should not prove a hindrance to their performance that pieces in this repertoire based on tunes and motifs from the popular music of the time for the most part was written for virginals, a gentle instrument unsuited to the stage and certainly inappropriate in open air performances. Much of this fine repertoire has been adapted for consorts of recorders or other instruments, and selection of titles for inclusion in this survey has often been related to the material drawn to my attention by the enthusiasm of the compilers of anthologies.

Works cited where a composer is not given are anonymous; in general, it is such pieces, especially those from the lute books, which will often prove most apt for use as stage music.

Full bibliographical citations (together with an incipit in musical notation) including those for related music in alternative settings are to be found in the preceding play survey within the serial number sequence 1-417. If a music suggestion has not been allocated to a particular point in a play, bibliographical information is given here in the NOTES, and if there is more than one numerical reference, see under the serial number in bold type within square brackets.

Included here also are various types of signals that may be encountered, as for instance those which might lend themselves to distinguish one particular faction or ‘house’ from another as they occur in the course of the plays.

see under word following the asterisk for detailed entry in these NOTES.


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H

hautboy, ‘hoboy’ the early form of double reed instrument derived from the shawm whose ‘intense, almost strident tone’ (cf Gerald Hayes in NOHM iv 736-40) could be more piercing than the oboe familiar to present-day ears, hence the s.d. *‘Loud music’ which would imply the use of a *hautboy consort; such as were employed to make an ‘impression’, as at a *banquet, *masque or in a *processional context (cfN&169). Edward J. Dent suggests that the consort of oboes would probably be augmented by *sackbuts (trombones) (NOHM iv 818)
Hautboys often appear as s.d. (cf N&169-172, and as many as 14 times in the spoken text) whose purpose is to convey a sinister or mysterious atmosphere cf A&C IV iii 11 and Ham III ii 138, announcing the entry of the dumb show; and most significantly, ‘hautboys and torches’ in Mac I vi and vii; and ‘hautboys’ IV i 106 with the Show of Eight Kings. Andrew Charlton offers a number of pieces ‘for 3 hautboys’ suggesting use of recorders or viols as alternatives: CM409-11 ; these include ‘Go from my window’ (354f),’ I loathe that I did love’ (50b), ‘Carman’s whistle’ (60), ‘Whoop do me no harm’ (410) and ‘Westron wynde’ (31b).
hay, hey allusions to the country dance for use in the burlesque LLL V i 153 and V vii 580; (149, 153)
BR 114 gives a description . Of the *Branle de la haye in 4/4, Arbeau writes that this dance, with its interweaving movement, opens like a courant (*coranto) (BS347) (23a, 592) 924
Julian Pilling à-propos the morris scene in TNK III v suggests this ‘“trace and turn” or the “hay”’ features movement in a circle, with the dancers waving in and out, perhaps criss-crossing ribbons round a *maypole in the shape of a wreath’ (AS108, quoting from English Dance and Song, 1984, p.28)
‘heavenly music’ as stage direction, see *Still music
hemiola ambiguous syncopated rhythm patterns which can add spice to much Renaissance music, especially in that associated with dancing, as in MORLEY ‘Joyne hands’ (724) 925
hexachord see under ‘*Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la’
hey see *hay
‘hey, down, down, a-down-a’ see *catches; *down-a-down
hobby horse both allusions in LLL III i 28-9 and Ham III ii 137 relate to the so-called ‘Nine days’ wonder’ when Shakespeare’s *clown, William Kempe, danced the *morris alone from London to Norwich leaving behind the clumsy hobby-horse normally an *antic feature of that dance. (39, 145)
see also BS359-61.and TNK III v (AS App. 5, p. 357)
Anthony Holborne d. 1602 composer and publisher of invaluable resources of popular music of the time in *consort settings à 5 and for both *lute and *cittern (see KEY and Composer index).
Of his lute solos, Matthew Spring notes how his ‘sparkling galliards and almains have wonderful tunes and subtle and intricate rhythmic patterns’ (SP148)
horn-pipe popular British dance in simple triple time traced back to 1485. Baskervill notes that it was for a largish group of people especially as a round dance though the actual steps are not traced, and that it would have been accompanied by a wind instrument (BS360, 114). The Clown in WT IV ii 45 speaks of a choir member singing psalms to hornpipes.
Examples of these are in Simon Raven’s anthology of country dance tunes, ‘Lancashire hornpipe’ RE 11 ii; ۞Ci 22 and ‘Shropshire rounds: an Old English hornpipe’ RE11 i/ WM ii 22d 926-7
and both John Caldwell (CDe 45-6) and Winifred Maynard (ME71) draw attention to one of three dances in the so-called Henry VIII ms., the ‘remarkable’ ASTON ‘Hornepype’ (RA f40) RAd2 in keyboard tablature: MB lxvi 36 in which Van den Borren noted its ‘persistent basses borrowed from the rustic bagpipes’ ۞Hc7. The piece was later developed by Byrd MB xxvii 39/ BY35, ۞Mo i 13 and Hilda Andrews in her understandable advocacy of Byrd, describes the original as a crude piece, built upon the simplest possible harmonic basis (BY p.xxiii). 928
John Ward’s lute anthology also includes four other examples
‘A *bagpipe hornpipe’ (LO f4) WM ii 22c (493C) 929
‘A hornpipe’ à 2 (LO f9/ Sloane MS 16) WM ii 23 930
‘Wales hornpipe’ (Sloane MS 17) WM ii 23 931 (1548)
and ‘Hornepype d’Angleterre for guiterne’ which had appeared in Morlaye’s anthology WM ii 44 932
‘The Cobbler’s hornpipe’ (or jig) is exceptionally in 4/4 time (176b) 933
horn, hunting see allusions in T.A. II iii 18, TNK III i 93 and incidental music suggestions for As
and MND IV i . see also *cornett; *greenwood. (19, 210)
Andrew Minor (MI 93) has facsimiles of four of ‘The measures of blowing set down in the notes for the more ease and ready help of such are desirous to learne the same’ from Turberville Noble Arte of Venerie or Hunting, London, 1576:
‘The Call for the Companie in the morning’ 934
‘The Strake to the Fielde. To be blowen with two windes’ 935
‘The uncoupling of the Couerte tide. To be blowen with three windes’ 936
‘The Secke, With two windes.’ 937
Also from LF11-12 gives another hunting call rhythm taken from Turberville (p. 251) ‘Death of a Bucke’ on repeated notes, (186) 938
and there is a more elaborate ‘old French hunting fanfare’ given in N&203 (323) 939
Andrew Minor also includes a catch à 4 ‘Hey, trola, there boys there’ by PIERS which appeared with other hunting catches in Ravenscroft’s Brief Discourse in 1614 Rb2/ MI 94-98; David Wulstan describes this as a stylised picture of country life (WT121) which includes a ‘splendid imitation of the hunting horns and dogs’ (WT66) 940
Van den Borren notes how the ‘King’s hunt’ by BULL, F135 opens with a rather catchy short statement, and rapid repetition of ten semi-quavers depicts the ‘movement of the chase’ (BS91), a piece which Wulstan finds ‘vigorous, but not devoid of subtlety’, in which ‘the blare of hunting horns and the barking of dogs are splendidly portrayed’ (WT121) (415e, 983) 941
David Wulstan (WT54-5) discusses the various settings of ‘Blow thy horn hunter’, that by CORNYSH being truly remarkable: à 3 (ATB) (RAf7/ GB-Lbl Add MS 31922 f39v-40) MB xviii 35/ WT55/ CW40/ GS27; ۞Ln 13; also as a solo song CW39/ G30; ۞Ln 13/ ۞Mt6 (814) 942
and there is a four part setting of this delightful text to another tune by RAVENSCROFT Rp57 943
The ‘Trenchmore’ dance in its version as a catch à 3 is set to the words ‘Tomorrow the fox is coming to town’; (823) 944 (1498)
DERING ‘Country cries’ for voice and consort MB xxii 70 includes some associated with hunting; tunes of six of these are in PE60 945
In PARSONS ‘De la court’ a rather extended piece for broken consort à 5, Paul Doe notes the canonic elements and rhythms suggesting hunting associations (MB xliv p.186); (1508) 946
and likewise in his consort à 6 ‘The Song called Trumpets’ (though no words seem to have come down to us) the chase is conjured up. (647) (1509) 947
A three-part piece is ‘Young Hunting’ in an edition for 3 oboes/2 treble and bass recorders/ 3 violins or viols. CM 411 no 6 947A
hunt’s up (honsok) the huntsmen’s early morning call; a generic term for an aubade (see SB pp. 323-6) to which allusion is made in R & J III v 34; there is a popular tune in duple time traced back to 1537, characterized by a downward arpeggio (underlined in the incipit opposite).
There are a number of versions for lute: 1559 ‘The hunte yis vppe’ (LO f112) WM ii 24, N72, 185/LH45-8, for two lutes the ‘New hunt is up’ LR38, and there is an embellished form for lute By WHITFELDE ‘The English huntsuppe’ 1615 (PI f32r) JE3/ JR 1 ‘The Kinges Hunt is upp’ CW86-89/ C60-2/ K49; and a version for cittern, 1597 HOLBORNE [J87] HC13 under the title ‘(In) Pescod Time’ [J87] à 4 Hg4 (1a, 18b) 948
A canon à 3 ‘A Hunts-up’ by BENNETT appears in Ravenscroft Rb1 (302a) 949
See also an article by John Ward in PRMA cvi (1979-80) 1-26
The Pickeringe lute book (15v-16r) PIv 14 includes a ‘Scottish Hunt’s up’ which Matthew Spring describes (SP454) PS106; together with a Jigg ۞ChQ 18 950


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I

incidental and interval music and their instrumentation on the Italian stage, Bernardino Daniello in 1536 reported that between the acts, ‘so that the stage will not remain empty, music and songs, and morescas and buffoons are usually brought in mixed together.’ Quoted in Tim Carter Music in late Renaissance and early Baroque Italy (1992) p. 153. He notes (ib. p.157) that this intermedio tradition reached its peak in Italy in 1589 with the festivities celebrating the marriage of Ferdinand de’ Medici and Christine of Lorraine. (See *wedding music)
Manifold (MM21) quotes comments of visitors to England, including those in Travels in England by Paul Hentzer published in 1598 who noticed that ‘without the city are some theatres, where English actors represent almost every day comedies and tragedies to numerous audiences; these are concluded with a variety of dances, accompanied by excellent music.’
Andrew Gurr notes how the Blackfriars’ musicians had a considerable reputation for their playing of string and woodwind chamber music as a kind of overture and between the acts. He evidenced the visit of the Duke of Stettin-Pomerania in 1602 who heard an hour long concert before the play by a ‘consort of *lutes, mandolins, *bandores, violins and *flutes.’ (Gurr 148). This line-up accords quite well with that of Morley’s ‘*broken consort’.
He notes the make up of other theatre bands of the time including that for ‘The Admiral’s Men’ whose equipment included three *trumpets, *drum, a treble and a bass *viol, *bandora, *sackbut, three timbrells, (tambourines) and a chime of bells (Gurr 186-7; see also Fox 77)
Platter, another German visitor, referring to a performance of Julius Caesar in 1633, ‘At the end of [what he calls] ‘the comedy they danced according to their custom, with extraordinary elegance.’
This suggests the opportunity for this ‘extra’ entertainment extends beyond those specified in extant stage directions as in the comedies which end with dancing, e.g. As, MND or Mu (23, 216, 245) and it is interesting that in 2H4 the Epilogue is spoken by a dancer. (70)
Matthew Spring surmises ‘the overall impression of Elizabethan and Jacobean stage directions is not that a stable consort of the six instruments of Morley (M) and Rosseter (RL) was expected, but that, as today, music and instrumentation were varied according to the needs and budget of each production’ (SP188)
Manifold summarises the sequence of ‘extraneous’ music in the play structure (MM22)
l 1st Sounding
2 2nd Sounding
3 Induction (if any)
4 3rd sounding
5 Prologue (if any)
6 Music for entrance Act I
7 Music occuring during the Act itself
8-11 Music for entrance Act II, III, IV, V similarly
12 Concluding song: dance, *flourish or other music Epilogue (if any)
13 Jig or after piece (if any)
As Dart notes, the three Soundings would include first one knock, then two and then three Knocks and that the Act tunes (6, 8-11 above) would last from 6 to 8 minutes each.
In his ‘incidental music’ section, CM has provided material adapted for instrumental consort for use as act or scene bridges, mentioning for example A&C between IV iv, v, vi, vii & viii [after 8]; Cor between II & III [after 17]; Mac between I & II [after 114]; R&J between IV iv & v [after 197] and T&C between II & III [after 230].
As for repertoire, as only the opening statement of many of the pieces cited for use in the main body of suggestions are appropriate during the performance of the play’s text, the complete composition could sometimes be effective as interval music, for instance between Acts III and IV of Hamlet anticipating — preparing the ground – for Olivia’s song fragments in scene 5.
Mary Chan summarises Elizabethan associations of particular instruments (Chan 11):
*strings — harmony of the universe
*cornetts – presence of royalty, though Dart and others suggest trumpets, with cornetts and kettledrums to represent lesser nobility
*flutes – funeral
*hautboys – supernatural spirits from hell (e.g. presaging murder)
*drums and *flutes together — *battle
Inns of Court dances see *dance
instruments see under *cittern, *drums, *flute, *hautboy, *lute, *organ, *pipe, *recorders, *shawms, *tabor, *viol. Convenient references to each relevant to this survey will be found in such sources as Lord ch. vi pp. 92-128
intermedi see *incidental and interval music
Irish motifs, see also *dumpe; *lament, ‘*Calen o custure me’
Van den Borren finds the ‘Irish Ho-Hoane, ‘a first class example of real pathos-expression of tender sorrow’ (Fn7) ‘a lamentation, with the melody in the rhythm of a slow courante. It has the air of wild and sombre grandeur’ (V312) kF26/ Fa 11; gFd12; rAA/TT(à 3) Fs2; rSS/ATT/B (à 4); 951
two country dances are in Playford, ‘Irish lady’ (‘Anniseed – Water Robin’) RE28iv/ RE42 ii/ E38/ Eb43/ SC iii 30/ SCt vi 11; rSSA Ed11; ۞YF24 952
and ‘Irish trot’ RE41 viii/ E45/ Eb44/ RE41/ SC iii 31/ SCt vi 12; rSSA Ez23; rSS/TT Eh18; the tune appeared as a song in ‘The Beggar’s opera’ as ‘I’m bubbled, I’m bubbled, Oh how I am troubled!’ RE60 iv 953
and among the BULL virginals pieces is his ‘Irish toy’ MB xix 112/ MB19d 10/ SC iii 31; 954
One of the Robert JOHNSON court dances, ‘The second of The Temple’ is given the title in Brade’s 1617 publication ‘Irlender Tantz’ BN26; (313g ii) 955
and Sabol’s collection includes another Irish dance for keyboard and bass viol, possibly by BRADE SA396; ۞Hc 17 v 956
the tune of ‘With a fading’ would suit as an Irish jig. (409, 767) 957
For ‘The Irish march’ attributed to Byrd, see *Battle (525) 958
Italian motifs see especially under *pavan and galliard (saltarello); *passamezzo, *wedding.
A valuable source for 16th century Italian dance steps was Fabrizio CAROSO’s Il ballarino, Venice 1581. Jane Gingell gives steps to various Italian dances TR pp.20-27.
A Carl Dolmetsch anthology includes three anonymous Italian dances rS + k DD5-7. Robert Dowland’s anthology of lute songs by both English and Continental composers A Musical Banquet 1610 included what has perhaps become the best known Italian song of the period, ‘Amarilli mia bella’ by CACCINI 1602 EL ii 20 (LS 16), with 4 viols + lute ۞ChF17, of which there is also a setting by Peter Philips in the Fitzwilliam virginal book F82; rSSA Ez30, and which also appeared in Robert Dowland’s The Musical banquet ۞CmD xii 24 959
The Mulliner Book has a piece for cittern ‘Venetian galliard’ by CHURCHYARD (865) 960
and GERVAISE includes a pavan entitled ‘La Venissienne’ (1236) 961
The dignified opening of the consort à 4 by CABEZÓN ‘Diferencias sobre Gallarda milanesa’ of 1578 is most impressive, though naturally the development which follows would not lend itself to stage use rSATB Moeck 371; ۞FA i 13 (see also WP100 on Italian influences in connection with the Court of James I) 962


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Jewish motifs the rather jolly ‘Jew’s dance’ by NICHOLSON exists in versions à 3 (tr-vn+t-r+l) MB xl 19; ۞BaS27/ ۞BreF4/ ۞DoH9/ ۞Hf 12/ ۞Hp9; as ‘The rich Jew’ kMP (f 100) 60, for lute solo as ‘Schotsen dans’ (Th 419); and for 2 lutes M27; ۞BaW17/ ۞EmR 17; John M. Ward (MD xx 1967, notes the use in it of the *bergamasca harmonic pattern. The piece is given the title ‘Sailor’s dance’ in ۞Sk21; performance notes Sk48-50. Duffin gives the melody together with the text ‘In Venice town’ DO330-4 (166c, 215f) 963
Another ‘Jew’s dance’ is by BASSANO (166b) 963A
Will Apel declares ‘Der Juden Tanz’ (in 4/4, with its Hupf auff in 3/4) by NEUSIDLER one of the most remarkable specimens of lute music of sixteenth century HM 105b; certainly the spicy bitonal clashes in the harmony could convey an unsettling atmosphere. (166d) 964
jig The term ‘jig’ had a variety of meanings (see BS), though in general it meant a sprightly dance, (first British allusion traced dated 1560), but not a favourite with the Puritans (cf Ham II ii 504, LLL III i 11 and TN I iii 134)
a) the quintessential folk dance, usually in 6/8, most often spelt ‘gigge’ and sometimes ‘jegge’ or similar, a repertoire enriched by such composers as Dowland (lute) and Byrd (virginals).
b) the farce form of jig (earliest British allusion to this form 1592) which Baskervill described as ‘merely a professional offshoot of the folk art of song with dance in the 16th century’ (BS28) and considered probably determined the most distinctive meaning of the word (BS17). Suzanne Lord (LS42) characterizes the jig as using between 2-5 players with a loose plot, including improvising, bad jokes and plenty of singing and dancing. These ‘after-pieces’ were most famously performed by the clownish comedian Richard Tarlton (BS95-105) who had gained a high reputation by the 1570s not least for his entertainments performed after the play, in the form of ‘a brief farce which was sung and accompanied by dancing’ (BS343).
After his death in 1588 his place was taken by William Kempe who was with The Lord Chamberlain’s Men from 1594-8. Both had jigs named after them which are extant: DOWLAND the short effective ‘*Tarlton’s jig,’ in versions for lute as ‘Tarleton’s Willy’ D81; ۞CmD xi 20 ۞Ld iii 17/ ۞NeE2/ ۞OD iii 10, or consort rSATB DAb 18; bcMB xl 23; ۞Ex5; 965
the anonymous ‘Kempe’s jig’ in common time for lute, or as a country dance in 6/4 (70a, 706) 966
and another tune appears in Playford in 6/4 which appears to be unrelated E25/ Eb49/ RE8; ۞BroS20/ ۞Mh19 ii/ ۞Wt6 967
c) the ‘courtly’ type of ‘jig’ would perhaps be more appropriate after performances of many of the histories and tragedies. In 1599, Thomas Platter, a visitor from Germany, described such a ‘jig’ performed at the end of JC. as dancing of ‘extreme elegance’, such that Alan Brissenden concludes that rather than a real jig, this must have been one of the court *dances. (BR15). Cf. MS9 on the New Globe’s taking up of this idea. John Southworth notes how a dance which brought the Globe performances to an end would act as an elegant coda having the effect of ‘sending the audience away in a calmer state of mind… a restoration of harmony to audience, players and the theatre itself, the microcosm of the universe that the Globe represented’. (Shakespeare the player, Sutton, 2004, p. 174). This would certainly be most salutary after a performance of such a tragedy as Macbeth or Othello.
d) the term ‘jig’ was also commonly used of the ‘*May games’ in which *morris was the central ritual (BS 356).
Andrew Gurr notes how after 1603 jigs were abandoned (GI 162) when the Shakespeare company at Blackfriars acquired the more sophisticated consort of musicians.
A good many jigs originally appeared in lute tablatures: a number in the Cambridge lute book, one of these is entitled ‘Playfellow,’ an essentially simple dance (CH 66r) CHr 8/ LU33; gDU8/ SG12 968
and of the five pieces entitled ‘A Gigue’ in The Schoole of Musicke by ROBINSON 1603 there are two ‘gigues’ in 3/8 time RS29, 32 969-970
and three in 2/4 time, one RS16 is mentioned below (989) 971
another, RS28, and the third ‘The Queen’s jegge’ RS23; 972-3
(Note there are two further pieces with this title, the long and elaborate ‘The Quen’s Jegge’ in kMPb (p. 14) 81; 974
and the apparently unrelated ‘The Queen’s jig’ appearing in Michael’s Raven’s anthology RE28 v which is taken from the 11th edition of Playford (1701) E260/ Eb466/ SCt xi 5; ۞Md25 975
A particularly lively example is ‘The Princes jegg’ also known as ‘The Skipping jigge’ kMPb (p.4) 75 976
Among the 44 dance pieces in the Dowland lute book is the ‘Cobbler’s jig’ (or hornpipe) in quick 4/4 time. (176b, 933) 977
Playford’s English dancing master included a number of Elizabethan jig tunes including ‘Millison’s jegge’, (367) 978
‘Lord of Carnarvon’s jegge’ RE33 iv/ RE41 vii/ E44/ Eb55/ RE41/ SC iii 21/ SCt vi 3; rS/TS/T Eh20, 979
and perhaps the most quintessential Elizabethan country dance tune, the confident and jolly ‘Grimstock’. (184) 980
‘Strawberry leaves’ is a ‘nicely flowing air of popular cast’; tune SB452, which exists in a setting à 5 (GB-Lbl Add MS 17786-91 f 1 no 33) TB1; ۞PaM26/ ۞YF5; 981
Of the Playford tune ‘Row well, ye mariners’ c1566, John Ward suggests it may have been used as a jig or round dance (WH158) (403b) 982
There are a number of jigs in Playford: ‘A new jigg’ E46/ Eb 177, 982a
‘A Jig’ E78/ Eb178, 982b
‘A Jig’ E83/ Eb179, 982c
‘A Jig’ E38/ Eb149, 982d
while ‘The new vagary’ after another 9-bar opening continues as 982d E47/ Eb 184 982e
Scotch jigs ‘all hot and hasty’ (allusion Mu II i 74) see under *Scottish motifs, *Irish motifs
The jig repertoire by named composers is mainly set for keyboard:
BULL ‘King’s *Hunt’ F135 in quick 4/4 time is animation personified, though after a catchy short statement of the tune it develops into a virtuoso concert piece; (415e, 941) 983
the sprightly and tuneful one subtitled ‘Doctor Bull’s Myselfe’ kF189/ MB xix 207/ MB19d 6; 2gBUq2; rA + g BUd4; rSATB MC4; ۞Ke 11; kRV24 984
and another ‘Gigge; My Grief’, kF190/ MB xiv 139; rS + k Fr9. (1011) 985
There are fine examples by the inexhaustible melodist (V286) Giles FARNABY: ‘A Gigge’ F267/ MB xxiv 27 though difficult to perform is worth working at for its lively *Scottish rhythms, and is so entitled ‘Scottish jigge’ in the simple unadorned version in kMP (f46v) 24; (223a) 986 (1398)
his haunting yet jig like ‘Tower Hill’ F245. c1580, is described by Baskerville as ‘a charming little piece in the rhythm of an allemande’ (BS312) (109e, 1200) 987
which resembles an anonymous ‘Gigge’ for virginals [GB-Lbl Add. MS 30486] DV 1; 988
and there is the tuneful ‘Rosasolis’ with its ‘delightfully childish subject’ (V246) F143/ MB xiv 47/ FAd 5, which also appeared anonymously in Robinson RS16 as a lute piece in 2/4 time. 989
By his son, Richard FARNABY, there is the excellent tuneful (Fn46) ‘Nobody’s Gigge’ or ‘Fleet Street’ in binary rhythm F149 of which Naylor notes (N 197) its resemblance to the best of his father’s folk tune settings in its sensitive and imaginative treatment of the keyboard (355b) 990
BYRD Galliard’s gigge BY7/ MB xxvii 18, is extrovert, bright and sprightly, what might be termed a ‘crossover’ from the courtly dance to the folk dance. ۞Mo v 23 991
Van den Borren admires the freshness and playfulness of the melody which gives his Gigg F181 such charm (V302) (302b) 992
John Caldwell singles out an ‘English jig’ for use in Shakespeare plays rS/A + k DX29; rS/AS/T + k DP i 3 993
For other instruments: DOWLAND the plain, simple and very short trifle ‘Mrs White’s Nothing’ for lute D56/ Ld iii 5; ۞CmD x 19/ ۞Mf28/ ۞OD i 22; gDb5/ Dp1; 994
and HUME ‘French jig,’ for solo bass viol. Ayres 1605 no. 63 MB9: 123-5 995
Reference to further jigs not mentioned here are to be found in the TITLE INDEX
Johnson, John ‘the earliest lutenist-composer of importance’ (SP146) whose extant works are mostly in the form of lute duets. Matthew Spring notes how much of his music is thinner in texture, and his style closer to actual dance music than that of later composers (SP148) making it particularly suited to stage use. See *lute duets, and the Composer index, and SN54-55 on Johnson’s play songs
Johnson, Robert II son of John Johnson, Robert has been described as ‘perhaps the last of the English lutenists.’ He was from 1603-1633 lutenist to James I and to his son Prince Henry from 1610-1612. John P. Cutts’ and Peter Holman’s researches point to him as composer of many of the songs and dances in the Shakespeare plays and considers that he would have provided incidental music to those produced from 1607-1616 (cf. NN63-5; LSJ xx (1978) 43-52). He was a member of Shakespeare’s troupe ‘The King’s Men’ from 1609-1623. See Composer index. Cf. article in SN 54-55 on Johnson’s songs for the plays. Van den Borren acclaims the high quality of his lute works, noting especially no 3 in F minor for its structural subtlety.


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K

Kempe, William see *clowns as musicians, *hobby-horse, *jig, *morris
ketteldrums specifically allusions in Ham I iv 13 and V ii 222; see *drums. Playford features a round dance for eight entitled ‘Kettledrum’ RE 10 i/ RE46 iv/ E89/ Eb50 995A
‘King Cophetua’ many allusions occur in the plays to a lost ballad: Don Armado asks Moth ‘be there not a ballad, boy, of the King and the Beggar?’ in LLL I ii 115 and later an allusion in IV i 66 ‘magnanimous and illustrate King Cophetua set eye on the pernicious and undubitate beggar Zenelophon’ and similar references are made in 2H4 V iii 102, LLL I iv 108-113, R2 V iii 79 and R&J II i 14. (320b) 996
See also SB221 (from Playford 1690 edition) where it is noted that the tune of ‘I often for my Jenny strove’ is used in this and a number of other ballads. 997
All this presumably has nothing to do with the song after a poem by Richard Johnson 1612, opening with words ‘I’d just as soon be a beggar as a king’ whose words perhaps suggest a male rather than a female beggar. This song was collected by Cecil Sharp in 1907 (sung to him by Robert Parrish of Exford, Somerset) which he considered might well be a genuine folk song air. See his English folk songs. Selected edition. Novello, 1920 p. xii. Tune as no. 28 on p. 66; also in 100 English folk songs, 1957 as no 78, and Collection of English folk songs; ed. by Maud Karpeles, OUP, 1974 as no. 377. 998
Sharp notes that the words of the refrain ‘Let the back and sides go bare’ are almost identical to those of the song ‘I cannot eat but little meat’ which occurs in the Prologue to Act II of Will Stevenson’s drama Gammer Gurton’s Needle printed in 1575, though the verses themselves bear no relation to the refrain (in C72). Incidentally, these verses are suggested by Banke for use in Iago’s song in Othello ‘I read that once in Africa a prince that there did reign, with refrain ‘Let the back and the sides go bare’ It appears to be almost identical to ‘I cannot eat but little meat; (‘Maltworms’ is the title that Moeran gives in his setting) publ. 1926; possibly connectied with modern setting in Warlock (Thames edition vol. 6) verse 2 ‘I am nothing a cold…jolly good ale and old’, here the Author is William Stevenson in ‘Gammer Gurton’s needle’ publ. 1575
The song collected by Cecil Sharp Somerset, sung to him by Robert Parrish in 1907 appears in
a) English folk songs. Selected edition Novello 1920 comment? p. xii; as no. 28, p. 66;
b) 100 English folk songs 1957 as no 78
c) Karpeles ed. Collection of English folk songs OUP 1974 no. 377
cf Carroll, Wiliam C. Fat King, lean beggar: representations of poverty in the age of Shakespeare Ithica, Cornell Univ Pr 1996
knell see *bells, *lament. Allusion: ‘play that sad note I named my knell’ in H8 IV ii 80
For consort à 6 is the truly affecting ‘Alison’s knell’ (79b) 999


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