This incorporates an attempt to follow up any kind of musical allusion in the play texts and stage directions which relate to dance and other musical forms. The examples chosen to represent musical forms are mainly by Elizabethan and Jacobean Court composers, often anonymous settings, here singled out for such qualities as concision and memorability. It should not prove a hindrance to their performance that pieces in this repertoire based on tunes and motifs from the popular music of the time for the most part was written for virginals, a gentle instrument unsuited to the stage and certainly inappropriate in open air performances. Much of this fine repertoire has been adapted for consorts of recorders or other instruments, and selection of titles for inclusion in this survey has often been related to the material drawn to my attention by the enthusiasm of the compilers of anthologies.

Works cited where a composer is not given are anonymous; in general, it is such pieces, especially those from the lute books, which will often prove most apt for use as stage music.

Full bibliographical citations (together with an incipit in musical notation) including those for related music in alternative settings are to be found in the preceding play survey within the serial number sequence 1-417. If a music suggestion has not been allocated to a particular point in a play, bibliographical information is given here in the NOTES, and if there is more than one numerical reference, see under the serial number in bold type within square brackets.

Included here also are various types of signals that may be encountered, as for instance those which might lend themselves to distinguish one particular faction or ‘house’ from another as they occur in the course of the plays.

see under word following the asterisk for detailed entry in these NOTES.



Dallis lute book (DL) this ms. has been dated 1583 (EIRE-Dtc MS D.3.30 Part I ) and contains 288 pieces including 142 dances (63 *passamezzos, 25 *galliards; many *quadro pavans and galliardes); 20 *lute songs (8 with *bandora) and part songs; over 50 of the pieces are based on *passamezzo patterns) see LSJ ix (1967) 22: John M. Ward The so-called Dallis Lute Book and ML xi (1930) 73-4: H.M. Fitzgibbon The lute books of Ballet and Dallis. See KEY for publications.
dance In the course of many of the plays there are occasions when an elegant courtly dance such as the *pavane often followed by a feet-tapping faster piece such as a *galliard are called for. In this survey there has been an endeavour to seek out concise pieces which make an immediate musical impact, or those in which an effective opening harmonised statement would lend itself to use during a scene and not sound unduly truncated without its later musical development, for so many of the fine works of the late 16th century bearing dance form titles would be out of place in the theatre if played in full, even though ideally suited as part of a concert programme.
In chapter x ‘The background of dance’ of Elizabethan *jig C.R. Baskervill surveys the various dance forms, but remarks on the bewildering confusion in the use of dance terms around 1600, which ‘points to a lack of distinction in types and to the freest transference of features from one type to another.’ (BS365); see also Walter Sorrell ‘Shakespeare and the dance’ SQ (1971) 373.
Turning to TN I iii 117ff, Sir Andrew declares that he delights in *masques and *revels, and Sir Toby illustrates for us dance steps current in Shakespeare’s time, *galliard, *caper, and ‘coming home in a *coranto,’ as well as a *jig, and a *sink-a-pace, and having had too many glasses of canary (?) speaks with apparent disapproval of the *passy-measures pavin in V i 201.
Moth has a few comments to make on the *brawl and the *canary in LLL III i.
Stage directions are sometimes descriptive, e.g. ‘graceful dance’; ‘ladies dance’ for these such courtly dances from the sequence: *pavane, *galliard, *almain, *coranto can be chosen (cf MH141); see under these heads for mention of noteworthy examples.
Among the many outstanding pieces not associated with a particular dance form can be mentioned ‘John come kiss me now’ of which perhaps the finest (if rather sophisticated) setting of the popular dance tune is that for virginals by BYRD; (106b, 566) 722
while ‘Put up thy dagger, Jemy’ by FARNABY ‘has a pleasing melody of a popular or dancing kind’ (V245) (341) 723
and there is an elegant yet syncopated Courtly dance for broken consort ‘Joyne hands’ by MORLEY bcM17; ۞BaB 1/ ۞BaW19/ ۞BreF1/ ۞DoH4/ ۞MsE ii 1/ ۞Wt 19; this is the quintessential invitation to the dance: a defiant challenge to those who decide to remain seated. The piece was based on his canzonet à 3 ‘See mine own sweet jewel’. 724 (925)
Although not for the most part directly relating to a repertoire of tunes which would have been familiar to English ears of Shakespeare’s time, the ‘very basic dancing master tunes’ (WP33) in the collections mostly in four part settings published by Pierre Attaignant between 1530 and 1557 (LPM AD1-7) prepared the ground for the more sophisticated versions of Susato à 4 (SU 1551), Praetorius à 4-6 (P 1612), Brade à 5 (BN 1617), Adson à 5 (AC 1621) and Simpson à 4 (SZ 1621).
The tunes and directions in the dance manual by Thoinot *Arbeau’s Orchésographie 1589 (AR) reflect a widespread European tradition rather than an essentially local *French interest.
Thomas and Gingell’s ‘Renaissance dance book’ (TR) has a representative sample of 26 dance settings from a number of anthologies from 16th century Continental Europe and there is a short wide-ranging anthology of 35 simple dance movements in arrangements for recorder and guitar by Rosenberg and Stentiford (RD). Edgar Hunt’s small anthology Dances from the 16th century for 4 recorders offers a representative collection including two SUSATO pieces, the grand ‘Danse du Roi’ SU i 14/ HP11; ۞EmR8 and one of the eight Allmaines (SU ii 34-41) HP1; ۞EmR5 725-6
The Stuart Queen Mary and her son Prince Henry both distinguished themselves at dancing at Court, the Prince especially showed his agility in the *galliard and *coranto (SE ii 438) and the Queen in the *branle (brawl). The three *masque dances ‘The Prince’s’ by Robert JOHNSON Were dedicated to him, and the first of these is singled out as particularly danceable; (450-452) 727 (1153), 1154-5
Matthew Spring also draws attention to the ‘simplicity and obvious harmonic direction’ in his ‘The Prince, his Coranto, which make it an ‘admirable dance tune’ (SP239) (693A) 728
C. H. Meyer draws attention (ME 95-9) to a few examples of ‘dancing dances’ among the more sophisticated ‘concert’ repertoire, which include for example the consort Galliard à 5 by PARSONS; 729 (851)
together with the sprightly DOWLAND ‘George Whitehead, his galliard’; (463) 730
one of his many dances for lute which, as Diana Poulton reminds us, (NOHM iv 205) were among the most popular of the time both at home and abroad. See also her article in MMR lxxxi (1951) 175 ‘Dowland’s songs in their instrumental form.’
Bernard Thomas singles out from the many pavans in the 1599 HOLBORNE set à 5 [J21] H3 as one of the few pavans of the end of the 16th century suitable for dancing; (34a ii) 731
Sabol gives a list of dances with their steps (SA p.546-8) taken from John Ramsey’s Commonplace Book Practise for dauncinge (GB-Ob Douce f66a-b).
Much reference is made in this survey to Alan Brissenden Shakespeare and the dance, 1981, who notes the presence of eight of the Court dances for which dance steps recur in ms. books of the period: (BR6) ‘Quadran pavan,’ ‘Turkeyloney,’ ‘The Earl of Essex measure,’ ‘Tinternell,’ ‘The Old Almain,’ ‘The Queen’s almain’ and ‘The Black almain’ (see Title index). Brissenden also gives a glossary of dance terms noting the dates traced in OED of their first use; these have been noted for this survey.
SA p. 546-8 prints from John Ramsay’s Commonplace Book (GB-Ob Douce f66a-b) Practise for Dauncinge with 24 step descriptions which can be related to a number of court dances referrred to in this survey: (75b, 102a, 172a, 228b, 308A, 343, 429, 658, 697A, 701C, 1013, 1052, 1083A, 1144, 1156, 1200)
See under the names of dance forms for pieces which commentators have singled out as particularly practical for use in performing dances on stage: specific dances (followed by an indication of the number of allusions to them in the course of the plays): bergamasque ( ), brawle ( ), canary (3), cinque pas/sinkapace ( ), coranto ( ), dump (5, including 3 in R&J), galliard (6), hay ( ), jig (9), measure (17 including word play), morris (2), pavan (see measure), volta (2). These total: comedies 30, tragedies 10, histories 7. See also *country dance, *masque
dance songs as a setting for Shakespeare’s words where dancing is implied, such country dances as ‘Sellenger’s *round’ (188d) 732 (1063)
and the *morris ‘Trip and go’ have been suggested (148) 733 (1191)
Many dances have come down to us in both forms, as dances and also adapted as songs, such are
‘Lustie gallant’ for ‘Fain would I have a pretie thing’; (64d) 734
‘Les Buffons’ for ‘John come kiss me now’ (106b) 735
and ‘The Frog galliard’ set by DOWLAND for ‘Now, o now I needs must part’ (188b) 736 (801)
dance tunes see *country dance
Danish motifs à propos the s.d. in Ha III ii 91 John Stevens notes a contemporary report that nine trumpets and a kettledrum ‘very sprightly and actively sound the Danish march at the Royal Entry of James I and Anne of Denmark into London in (38) 737
In addition to the two marches suggested in the Hamlet context, there is a piece by HUME ‘The King of Denmark’s delight’ which occurs in his ‘Poeticall musicke’ 1607 (English lute songs; ed. Sternfeld, vol. 6) no 2; ۞DoH15 738
dead march e.g. CM419 E2 drums. ‘funeral marches would often played by muffled drums alone (NOHM iv 818). If more ceremonial or processional music is fitting, then gravitas evoked in the moving short group of string Entratas from 1608 MONTEVERDI ‘Il Ballo delle ingrate’ à 4 + continuo would make excellent closing music for a tragedy (in UE 9588b = cw VIII/2; Schott 10715; 2vn+va/vn III + vc + continuo. Faber; ed. Leppard). 739
descant added vocal or instrumental part, usually the top line, to a unison (*’plainsong’) melody.
The word is used figuratively in R3 III vii 48 and TGoV I ii 95
dirge see *lament
discord ‘we shall shortly have discord in the spheres As II vii 6; ‘nothing but discords’ in R&J III i 47 and ‘harsh discords’ III v 27; ‘disorder’d string’ in R2 V v 46; musical allusions symbolic of disquiet, cf N&27-8, 32, and relating to T&C I iii 109 ‘untune that string. And hark! what discord follows’ Christopher Wilson discusses the Elizabethan philosophy of order and chaos and Shakes- peare’s applied musical metaphor of tuning and discord (W11-12). See also *Music of the spheres.
divisions (ground) florid elaboration often of a popular melody in the form of variations, typically on a *ground bass (repeated motif in the bass, sometimes using specified patterns e.g. the romanesca or passamezzo antico as in ‘Queen Marie’s *Dompe’ . (281c) 740 (759)
and in such famous subjects as in ‘Greensleeves to a ground’. (178) 741
Bernard Thomas cites an early example based on a simple ground bass, he writes of the beauty and invention of the quite complex added parts in ‘Hugh Aston’s maske’ à 3 which has an optional fourth part (GB-Och 979-83) LPM EM8/ MB xlv pp.155-8; kMB lxvi 46. BYRD adapted this for his ‘Hughe Aston’s ground’ MB xxvii 20/ BY35; ۞Cap21/ ۞Hc6/ ۞Mo i 5/ ۞Mt28. The moving opening measures could suit the stage, although the fine ‘divisions’ which follow would be out of place in that context. 742
Although some of the finest Elizabethan and Jacobean musical repertoire is in this form, such ‘concert’ material would be unsuited to the theatre; nevertheless judiciously selected settings of popular tunes originally intended as a subject for variation, can in some cases be especially effective as incidental music with slight adaptation particularly of the harmonies at the close of the tune’s statement. Su`ch material is mentioned in this survey usually cited after references to the availability of the simpler original source.
BYRD’s handling of the variation form is quite outstanding but rather too sophisticated for use in the stage context, though it may be possible to extract passages from his settings of some of folk tunes and ballads for which William Chappell set a precedent in C and CW. (See Composer index)
There are two works by BULL which bear the titles ‘Doctor Bull’s Ground’ MB xix 102a-b 743-4
John Caldwell finds the variation set by BACHILER on ‘Une jeune fillette’ one of his most attractive pieces (CDh 485) an opinion echoed by Matthew Spring (SP244); the piece is of considerable length and where perhaps an extract would suit the stage; VS i 34; ۞N12/ ۞PaD21 745
The Duncan Barrett music book has a ground by the Scottish composer KINLOCH which John Purser admires for its ‘tune full of distinction and nobility’ (PS111) 746
Italian equivalents of Shakespeare’s time are included by LPM in their REP series.
In 1553 the treatise by Diego ORTIZ on the art of playing divisions on the bass viol appeared in Rome, Tratado de glosas sobre clausulas y otros generos de puntos. This included one on an English popular tune, his Divisions (Diferencias) on a ground of ‘John come kiss me now’ (106b) 747
(N&28 refers to this wide interest in the playing of the bass viol; cf TN I iii 26).
In KL I ii 141 ‘O, these eclipses do portend these divisions! Fa, sol, la, mi.’ Gloucester is pruning, using the word ‘divisions’ in its familiar contentious sense, here in connection with the use of the unacceptable musical interval of the augmented fourth (e.g. F to B natural) ‘mi contra fa’.
Other allusions 1H4 III i 210 ‘with ravishing division to her lute’
Lear I ii 132 ‘O these eclipses do portend these divisions’
R&J III v 29 ‘some say the lark makes sweet division’ cf N&27-28
See also *Ut, Re, Mi….
‘down-a-down’ Allusions TNK IV iii 10; and MW I iv 40 ‘And down, down, a-down-a’ (176, 394)
‘with a down-a-down,’ or ‘hey down a down, derry’ and variants occur in refrains of catches by RAVENSCROFT, see *catches
drinking songs and *catches A&C II vii 118-123, Oth II iii 69-73 and ‘scurvy tunes’ in Tem II ii.
An early example is ‘Tapster, drinker, bring another ale’ à 3 (c1475) HM85/ MI 80; rSTT RC ii 22; 748
and there are a number of bibulous *catches or rounds in the RAVENSCROFT anthologies, among them two rounds à 3, ‘He that will an alehouse keep’ Rm 15/ CB vi 18 iv; ۞DeC 18/ ۞DeS 15 749
and ‘Malt’s come down’ Rd 15/ C74; gRZ i 6; of which there is a setting for virginals by BYRD
F180, which Ross Duffin DO 110 has fitted to ‘Come thou monarch of the vine’ for A&C II vii 110 (10h) 750
others have been suggested for Iago’s ‘And let me not the canakin clink’ Oth II iii 69; (247e-g)
and there are a further six à 3-5 in Rp. see especially CB vi Smoking and drinking;
One of the French dances in Terpsichore is ‘Ballet des Bacchanales’ à 4 P278 which Philip Pickett in notes to his recording of PRAETORIUS Terpsichore suggests that the ‘Ballet des Bacchanales’ à 4 as appropriate at Shrove Tuesday junketings) (62c) 751
see also *catches
drum and flute (fife) tabor and pipe (fife) much used for playing folk tunes, also with military associations. The fife is an end blown whistle with six holes. Arbeau provides a piece characteristic of the instruments: first, 78 bars in duple time in the Phrygian mode ARe 40-3 and then 76 bars in triple time ARe 44-6. There is a related keyboard piece attributed to Byrd ‘Flute and drum’ in ‘Mr Byrd’s Battell’ see *battle music. (14) 752
See also ‘*pipe and tabor’ for the equivalent for use in folk dance .
drums 16th century drum rhythms are given extended treatment in ARb29-38/ ARe22-8. Dart notes side drums represent the common soldier. see also *alarum, *dead march, *march, *military signals’ Shakespeare characterises the instrument in King John III i 229-230
A melody entitled ‘Kettledrum’appears in Playford E89/ Eb50 752A
Andrew Charlton includes a group of four drum cadences which can be used as march patterns and six timpani patterns CM420 752B
Dublin virginal book (see under DB in Key) Bernard Thomas notes that the material, probably copied in 1570s, was the last source to contain the harmonically simple pavans that were composed essentially to be danced to; (later examples were to display an harmonic and contrapuntal complexity which would not lend themselves to use in a theatrical context except perhaps for their opening statements). Six of the nine pieces in Holman’s anthology adapted for instruments à 4 (HD) are from this source.
dumb show NOHM iv 819 suggests these were always accompanied by music. Mary Chan notes how Norton and Sackville’s Gorboduc performed at The Inner Temple in 1561 features a dumb show between each act serving to clarify the plot in the act to follow. The Shakespeare stage directions show where they occur in Ham, Ma and Per (30, 184, 186)
see also *Bergomasque *dance, *masque
dump(e), dompe dance in common time ‘of particular gravity’ (NOHM iv 624) as in the allusion in TG III ii 85 to a ‘deploring dump’, although in the plays it could bear such extreme attributes as ‘merry,’ and ‘doleful.’ (281, 282)
John Caldwell suggests the word originally implied a thumping, and notes how dumps are based on ‘some simple harmonic ground, whose incessant repetition provides a suitable haunting quality’ (CDh 339).
Musical examples already noted are ‘Milkmaid’s dump’; (47) 753
and the haunting 1510 ‘My Lady Carey’s dompe,’ (RA f44) attributed to ASTON by Ernest Walker describing it as a really charming piece in its slight way (History of music in England, p. 32). John Ward writes of this example of one of the oldest preserved examples of 16th century Engliish keyboard music noting that it is in fact in the form of a consort à 3 writtten on two staves (JLSoA xxix) (300b) 754
For keyboard is *’Irish Dumpe’ whose cheerfulness belies its title kF179/ Fa 17/ CW85; also arranged for 2 violins and piano N9 755
For lute is the fine but very elaborate c1570s ‘Militis Dump,’ LU16; 756
‘The Duke of Millan’s dump CHr 23 757
and ‘Dump: Phylli’ WM4 758
C. H. Meyer notes the surprising playfulness in the lute piece ‘Queen Maries Dompe’ c1550 though this would in the circumstances be quite unsuitable for such an occasion, it would ironically seem to tally with the musician Peter’s request in R&J IV v 107-8 for a ‘merry dump’ to comfort him at the confusion reigning in the Capulet household. This piece has been attributed to ASTON on stylistic grounds (BA4-5) WM49. (281c) 759
For two lutes by John JOHNSON ‘A Dump’ (GB-Cu D d 3.18 f3v/ PI ) LR16; ۞ChQ 1 i 760
which is paired with the cheerful and dextrous ‘The Queen’s treble,’ (PI -lute and bass)/ FD f6v, 7/ GB-Cu D d 3.18 f4r, 3v) RY6/ LR29/ BV 19; ۞BaL15/ ۞ChQ1 ii/ ۞L 11 761
There are a further five anonymous ‘dumps’ included by Nigel North in NTi.
See also article by John M. Ward ‘The Doleful dumps’ in JAMS iv (1951) 111-121
Dutch motifs a lute piece by JUDENKÜNIG is ‘ Niederländische Rundtanz’ tkSL2 762 (1385)
and another is by NEUSIDLER Ein Niederlendischer Tanzlein gSm34 763



echo there is a piece for 2 *lutes by PILKINGTON which has also been attributed to MARCHANT with the title ‘Echo’ LR35; 2gSTg8 764 (1071)
and an ‘Echo’ *Pavan and Galliard in G for virginals attributed to BYRD MB xxviii 114a-b Mo ii 18-19 765-6
entry; exit see *ceremonial music, *processional.
excursion call for sortie, i.e. from besieged city (Dart)



‘fa, sol, la, mi’ see *divisions
‘fadding’ Irish country jig see *WT IV iii 181-200 (409a) 767 (957)
fairs see WT IV ii and iii, *catches, *freeman songs
fancy allusion to ‘fancies and *goodnights’ 2H4 III ii 328. The 16th century fantasia (or *conceit) especially for viol consort tended to receive a sophisticated treatment in contrapuntal style. There is a notable repertoire of such works by BYRD, his 10 consort fantasias à 3-6 (S&B cw 17; ed. K. Elliott). (Note that a number of Byrd’s Fantasias à 3, à 4 and à 6 are included in ۞FG ii). Marylin Wailes has edited one Fantazia à 4 for AAAB viols [4g] in a version for recorders which appeared in his ‘Psalms, Songs and Sonnets’ in 1611 spSchott 11602 (1956); ۞Eg21 768
and there are two Fantasias à 6 edited by Salkeld for SSA/TTBB recorders Faber F 0362 768A
and no 2 [g1] cw 17: 12; rSSAA/TTB Faber F 0363; ۞RoR6 768B
Other fantasias central to Renaissance repertoire are those of GIBBONS; these include a ‘Fantasia of foure parts’ which Fuller-Maitland considered as masterly in design (G2) ۞Hp 17; this was in origin for virginals MB xx 14; ۞ChQ 15; cf Oliver Neighbour on his consort music EM (1983) 355-6, recorder editions of this ‘Fancy à 4’ rSATB in MC3; kHC3 and separately by Dom Gregory Murray sSchott 11609; ۞Tv3 769
In the search for fancies in a simpler style, among his Fantasias à 3 for viols by the resourceful and accomplished composer (G7 xv 320) LUPO is one which John Long suggests for the musicians to play in Act II sc ii of Cymbeline (29a) 770
and another appears in a setting for recorders rSS/TA/T RC ii 26 771
Particularly relevant to this survey, Bernard Thomas recommends the set of 5 Fantasias à 4 also by LUPO as ‘short, colourful and which may have a theatrical context’ rAATB spLPM Dolce 311 772-6
The Lumsden anthology has four lute fancies:
LU23, one by NEWMAN incorporating ‘false relations’ in the harmony kMB I (f 13v): 10/ MB1d 2 777
and LU22 which is a simple anonymous fancy using chromaticism suggesting Dowland in style; 778
Of two by DOWLAND himself, first LU21, ‘Forlorne Hope Fancy’ D2 sinks chromatically ‘superbly into the gloom involving elaborate finger work’ (G6 v 595); ۞CmD x 26/ ۞Ex 12/ ۞Ld ii 1/ ۞OD iii 19. Wilfred Mellers (MJ26) alludes to the symbolism of the falling fourth in this piece as an inversion of ‘God’s interval’, the perfect fifth, representing man’s descent from kinship with God in Shakespeare’s ‘muddy vesture of decay’ (MoV V i 68) 779 (1022)
Conversely LU20 *‘Farwell’ (Farewell) D3, an expanded piece, whose impressive opening rises chromatically which could perhaps be played as an extract; ۞BreW21/ ۞CmD x 6/ ۞Ld24/ ۞OD i 25; gDd3. Here Mellers characterizes the rising motif as leading to the ‘possibility of Hope that is not forlorn but purgatorial’. 780 (800)
Other writers have commented on these two fancies: Diana Poulton considers them to be among the most remarkable of his lute solos; she notes that D3 is without the ‘brooding disquiet’ which the title implies (DP114-5) and John Duarte reviewing the Bream collected lute works, considers them ‘poignant and skilfully woven masterpieces unparalleled in the repertory of the lute. See also Wilfred Mellers The Mask of Orpheus. Manchester Univ. pr., 1987, P. 26 and also MJ59 on their spiritual significance
Among the pieces in Adrienne Simpson’s Easy lute music(SL) is one of a host of Fantasias by the most distinguished Italian lute player and composer of his day, FRANCESCO (CANOVA) da Milano, ‘Il Divino’ The lute music of Francesco di Milano, Harvard UP, 1970, vol. 1 no. 34 (Oxford University press, 1975). 781
and a set of eight of his Fantasias is recorded by Julian Bream, nos 1-3, 5-8 ۞BreW2, 4, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17, together with the ‘fetching and exciting no 4 ‘La Compagna’ (Penguin stereo record guide). 782
For 2 lutes is a Fancy by DANYEL tLSoc C4: 3/ ST7; 2gSTg 7 also in Danyel 7 solos and 2 duets tLSoc 095; 783
another is by ROBINSON LR43/ RS9; ۞L12/ ۞W17; 2g JG6; 784
and there isa pair by LASSUS 2g I 7-8 785-6
Among the 22 fantasias in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book is one by STROGERS F89 whose wayward treatment evokes a mysterious atmosphere (16c) 787 (1201)
and to similar effect, another by TISDALE F295 (29c) 788
There is what has been described as a ‘naïve programmatic’ Fantasia ‘The Tempest’ F3 by John MUNDY 789 (1443)
In addition to the fine works for viols mentioned above are two from among the nine for keyboard by BYRD are Fancie in D minor [d1] BY41/ MB xxviii 46; ۞Mo iii 11 790
and the gentle, imaginatively constructed Fancie in C major [C2] (Fantasia VIII) F103/ BY36/ MB xxvii 25; ۞Cap16/ ۞FA ii 15/ ۞Mo iii 12, whose opening measures reach a full close and so could lend itself to stage use, for the complete piece would be too extended, with its roulades in which every note has meaning; this could perhaps be played after the curtain had fallen at the end of one of the tragedies. Paul Nicholson suggests the playing of this piece on the organ would be effective in a ‘Vision’ scene ۞FH13 (see *supernatural effects) 791 (1476)
A Fantasia by a composer working at ‘The Globe’ might be fitted in, such as one by Robert JOHNSON Ja 1; ۞KyJ 10 793
Among the ten Fantasias in The Fitzwilliam virginal book by FARNABY is F208/ MB xxiv 9 which Van den Borren describes as having a ‘delicate and fragile grace, with a mixture of playful- ness and tenderness’; 794
another, F129/ MB xxiv 5, has ‘the delicious perfume of Anglo-Italian sweetness’ (V190-1). 795
From an attractive source of vihuela (early Spanish guitar) music is the gently moving ‘Fantasia de redobles’ 1554, one of twenty-three fantasias by FUENLLANA, who worked at the Court of Philip II. Ricordi (ed. George Clinton). LD533; ۞FA i 10 796 (1469)
fanfare see *ceremonial music, *flourish
fantasia see *fancy
farewell From the Court of HENRY VIII come his own consort piece in the form of a round ‘Departure is my chief pain’ MB xviii 56; bc HF5; ۞Go4 iv/ ۞MnF 7 ii/ ۞Si 15 797
and moving and simple ‘Adew, adew my hartis lust’ à 3 by CORNYSH (ATB) MB xviii 16/ HM86a; ۞MnF 6 i 798
and there is a later lute piece by HOLBORNE ‘Antony Holborne’s Farewell’ [J81] his galliard no 9 HB32; ۞CamQ6/ ۞Th21; which exists also in a version for cittern HC58, as well as for broken consort in the Lumley part books MB xl 22. The Penguin Guide to CDs, 1994 p.1362 draws attention to the poignant closing section in this extended piece 799
DOWLAND can be trusted to provide pieces eloquently expressive of the sadder sides of life, as in the chromatic lute fantasia, the In nomine ‘Farewell’, though the complete piece might prove too elaborate and extended for use on the stage; ۞RoC9 (780) 800
the ayres ‘Now, o now I needs must part’, (188b, 736) 801
‘Farewell, unkind!’; (169a) 802
‘Farewell, too faire’ EL (i 10-11) LS 3/ PM ii ; fEF17; ۞CmD iii 1; also in à 4-part setting in MB vi; 803
and ‘Wilt thou unkind thus reave (rescue) me?’ 1597 EL (i 1-2) LS1: 15/ Df13; ۞BreE17/ ۞CmD i 15/۞DeP7 804
There are moving settings of ‘Loth to depart’, by DOWLAND for lute and by FARNABY for virginals (28b) 805
‘Farewell, dear love’ by JONES 1600 is one of the very few art songs to which Shakespeare seems to allude directly, which David Greer rates one of the most successful of all the English lutenist songs (see CDw 213-9 “Five variations on ‘Farewell dear love’”. The setting à 4 will be familiar to most madrigal singers (MB liii 17/ Dart Invitation to madrigals, Stainer and Bell 1962, no 15) (352) 806
‘One of the loveliest of the late 16th century consort songs’ (NOHM iv 216) ‘Pandolpho’ attributed to PARSONS is richly scored with 4 viols, opening with the words ‘Pour down, you pow’rs divine’ whose second part opens ‘No grief is like to mine’ MB xxii 6a-b/ WE ii 5; ۞FA i 15/ ۞DeE9/ ۞RoE8. 807
there is also a number of fine valedictory pieces in the form of *consort songs (q.v.); see also *lament
fiddle in the violin lesson in ToS III i 40 Hortensio is told rather ill-advisedly to ‘spit in the hole’ to adjust the tuning peg; other allusions are to the ‘fiddler Apollo Cor V iv, Oth III iii 1, T&C III iii, and to the bow as ‘fiddlestick’ IH4 II iv and R&J II i
fife see *drum; *march, *pipe, *tabor
final music typically in comedies, *dancing (q.v.), and in tragedies, a *dead march (q.v.)
Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (F) Although the acoustical properties of the Playhouses would not have suited the domestic harpsichord, this the most prestigious collection of Elizabethan music actually contains (in addition to the expanded of formal ‘concert’ works) much material which had lent itself to transcription for consort which display, to quote Edward Naylor, ‘simple cheerfulness, artistic coherence and natural tunefulness’ (Fn 124). This superb anthology includes 134 harmonised popular dance tunes (many of which would otherwise have been lost to posterity). The contribution of FARNABY in this direction is extensive (see composer index).
See KEY for editions; F numbers recur throughout this survey and these are followed by details of publication of versions for lute or consort made at the time or of later transcriptions most commonly for recorder consort.
flourish brief and simple call on *trumpets or *cornetts, probably extemporised (SM14).
Naylor (N160-2) gives statistics of their occurrence in the plays: there are about 68 flourishes; trumpets specified (6 times; cornetts (2); entrance or exit of royalty (22) or VIP (12), public welcome to queen or general (10); end of scene (7); victorious force (6), warning of approach of play actors or beginning of play (2). Long occasionally allocates specific musical material, as in A&C [8A] and Cor [after 19]. These calls are usually associated with individual entries or exits, cf Richard Madelaine in his edition of A&C (CUP 1998), although, he notes, exceptionally in that play they are used for multiple groups.
CM414-434 provides a wide range of flourishes (the other signals which are included here are noted under *alarum, *march, *parley, *retreat , *trumpet, *tucket), for example, CM414 gives 19 flourishes for 1 or 2 trumpets, CM416 gives a longer flourish (c20 seconds) 808
and CM421 gives 6 three-part flourishes (2 cornetts or trumpets, 2 sackbuts, bassoon and drums).
An expanded setting as a ‘Royal flourish’ à 5 is in LH276-80 (330) 809
There is a march or long flourish attributed to BYRD (524) 809A
CM421-3 gives the score for a group of flourishes à 3 suited to cornetti/ trumpets/ oboes/ shawms/ recorders„ 809B-G
flute early references to this instrument would probably imply the *recorder, for the wooden transverse flute remained in the background until its development during the Baroque period (and later the familiar keys and levers were added ).
folk tunes see *country dance; *jig; *morris
fools see *clowns as musicians
‘Fortune my foe’ allusions in MW III iii 62 The tune ‘Fortune’ also known as ‘The Hanging tune,’ belongs to a lost ballad before 1590 (SB225); though lute versions appeared in various tablature books. (DOWLAND’s own short lute version D63 is entitled ‘Complaint’, though in his piece actually entitled ‘Fortune’ D62 the tune is not evident). As well as a fine keyboard setting by BYRD F65, this well travelled melancholy tune was to inspire an international range of settings for consort (182) 810
freeman song, or ‘three-man song’ allusion WT IV ii 43 ‘Three-man song men all’ usually in the form of canons or rounds for three male voices (ATB) from the time of Henry VIII, among them one by COOPER ‘I have been a forster’ (15c) 811
and some simply constructed yet remarkably effective examples by CORNYSH which stand out:
‘Ah Robin, gentyl Robin’; (362a) 812
‘Ah the syghes’; (370a) 813 (1000)
‘Blow thy *horn, hunter’; as a solo song G30/ CW39 814 (942)
‘Hoyda, jolly Rutterkyn’; (177) 815
and ‘Trolly lolly loly lo’ (RA f43v-44) MB xviii 39; rSAT RB32 816
Of the various collections of RAVENSCROFT, Deuteromelia 1609 contains 14 examples designated as freeman songs à 3, including
‘As it fell on a holy day’ Rd 1, which is version of the ‘John Dory’ tune in 6/4; (247e) 817
‘The great bell of Osney’ Rd 14; 818
‘Hold thy peace, knave’ Rd 10; (345a) 819
and ‘We be soldiers three’ Rd 3; (413b) 820
a further seven are set for 4 voices including the rollicking ‘Martin said to his man’ K91; fSk39; Rd16; ۞A21/ ۞Mh22/ ۞Sk3; notes on school performance Sk14-15; tune C76/ CW140; there is also a setting for virginals F212; rSATTB/T Fg 1, rSS/ATB RC i 40 which opens as shown in the second incipit; 821
‘By a banke’ Rd19; (308c) 822
‘Tomorrow the fox will come to town’ Rd20, which as a dance became known as ‘Trenchmore’ 823 (944, 1498)
and ‘Yonder comes a courteous knight’ Rd22 (66e) 824 (1204)
French motifs see below under *Praetorius, who made so many fine settings of French dances many of which were provided by the dancing master, Francisque Caroubel; see also under *ballet, *basse danse, *branle, *ronde, *volta; and note the many pieces in the Title Index under ‘French…’ such as the shapely ‘French ayre’ for virginals by GIBBONS MB xx 32/ GH7; 825
‘A French gayliarde’ attributed to John JOHNSON. (844) 826
and a setting of ‘Est-ce Mars’ (attributed to GUÉDRON) which appeared in the Board lute book as ‘The French tune’ (1130) 827
Two sets of Chansons rustiques à 3 (c.1550) with two examples spLPM293` 827A
And another with four spLPM 137 827B
Walter Sorrell remarks how French dances ‘dominated the English scene and, in spite of their intricacies, won more and more popularity after the middle of the 16th century’.(SQ viii 1957 371) The presence of French influences at the Court of James I is noted by Peter Walls who writes ‘The households of the children and wives of the first two Stuarts have a particular interest because of their concentration of highly favoured foreign musicians, who must have played a role in familiarising their English colleagues with Continental styles’ (WP5); see also *wedding music
frisk allusion TNK III v 30; a lively dance, see *caper, *jig
funeral music see *consort song, *dead march, *lament, and note the ‘funeral pavane’ (40a i, 376)

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