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This incorporates an attempt to follow up any kind of musical allusion in the play texts and stage directions which relate to dance and other musical forms. The examples chosen to represent musical forms are mainly by Elizabethan and Jacobean Court composers, often anonymous settings, here singled out for such qualities as concision and memorability. It should not prove a hindrance to their performance that pieces in this repertoire based on tunes and motifs from the popular music of the time for the most part was written for virginals, a gentle instrument unsuited to the stage and certainly inappropriate in open air performances. Much of this fine repertoire has been adapted for consorts of recorders or other instruments, and selection of titles for inclusion in this survey has often been related to the material drawn to my attention by the enthusiasm of the compilers of anthologies.

Works cited where a composer is not given are anonymous; in general, it is such pieces, especially those from the lute books, which will often prove most apt for use as stage music.

Full bibliographical citations (together with an incipit in musical notation) including those for related music in alternative settings are to be found in the preceding play survey within the serial number sequence 1-417. If a music suggestion has not been allocated to a particular point in a play, bibliographical information is given here in the NOTES, and if there is more than one numerical reference, see under the serial number in bold type within square brackets.

Included here also are various types of signals that may be encountered, as for instance those which might lend themselves to distinguish one particular faction or ‘house’ from another as they occur in the course of the plays.

see under word following the asterisk for detailed entry in these NOTES.



‘Calen O custare me’ H5 IV iv 3 allusion to an Irish song registered 1581 (see G49-50/ N74).
The opening statement from Byrd’s setting, F158, could act as an ideal scene bridge. (74) 608
calls see *alarum,*drum, *flourish,*retreat, *sennet , *tucket , *waits
Cambridge cittern book anonymous settings GB-Cu MS D d 4 23, see KEY under (CC)
Cambridge lute book 326 items compiled by Matthew Holmes GB-Cu MS D d 2 11, see KEY under (CH)
canary Bernard Thomas notes how this popular dance displays something of the rather risqué and a rather amusing aura of the exotic (TR p.87). BR notes 1592 as the first British allusion.
AW II i 76-7 has ‘make you dance the canary with sprightly fire and motion’ and LLL III i 11-12 ‘jig off a tune at the tongue’s end, canary to it with your feet’ A description is given in SA p. 17 MM 144: common or sextuple; two strong beats in each phrase.
‘Its passages are gay but nevertheless strange and fantastic with a strong barbaric flavour’ (Arbeau, quoted in DF52ff/ BS346); Richard Hudson, quotes a description dated 1611 as a ‘type of *saltarello gracioso that came to Spain from the Canary Islands’ (G7 iv 921-4). Settings of the tune are entitled ‘Il Canario’, ‘Canaries’ or ‘La Canarie’: lute: Francesco da Milano LSoc C53: 7/ SA311; Caroso rSSATB TR17, description TR p.87, steps DH30-31/ TR p.90-2; tRN5; kMP19; tune RE7; ۞DH no 5; Straloch lute book rSS/ATT/B +k DPi: 4; Board lute book lt (BO38r 143); Arbeau AR95/ ARe 179-181, 259 tune and steps/ N141/ N57/ CM361-4/ C358; rAAAA/ sq / 4fl ARi 13; A/fl T/ fl/ ob CM361-4; ۞BroA 9 ii/ ۞BroL 5; 609 (1343)
Another ‘Il canario’ set by Negri appeared in his ‘Le grazie d’amore’ 1581. Olms (2003); ۞Helios CDH55059; Praetorius ‘La Canarie’ à 4: in 6/8 P31/ Pm iii 6; ۞PaD 16; rS+g+vc Pr9. 609A
canons see *catches, canons and rounds
caper BR notes the first British allusion appeared in 1592; it is mentioned at least eight times in the plays where it refers to a leap occurring during a dance; as ‘cut a caper in a *galliard’; as the sobet *basse danse became obsolete, the caper became the touchstone of the dance (cf BS339); see especially *volta
‘Carman’s whistle’ allusion 2H4 III ii 327, round dance, tune SB56; SBp.85-6 for provenance; an ideal setting of the tune’s opening phrase in the superb BYRD long set of variations F58; there is a lute piece by ‘Johnsoune,’ which Cutts attributes to John JOHNSON, and which Lyle Nordstrom considers one of his finest compositions (JLSoA 1976 ix). (60) 610 (713)
catches, canons and rounds, ‘freemen’ songs canonic part songs of which the most famous is ‘Three blind mice’ familiar from the nursery, Rd 13/ Sk61; ۞R 11/ ۞Sk26; performance notes Sk58-60 611
In TN II iii Toby, Feste and Andrew make allusions to singing catches and indeed attempt to sing one, though Maria is much discomforted at their caterwauling. [Seng 26-9] (345-352)
Some of the characteristics of the anonymous country rounds collected and published by Ravenscroft in the four anthologies (as shown in the KEY) employ such devices as rising and falling scales as in ‘Hey downe a downe’ à 4 Rd31 which goes down the scale a whole octave with a single rise of a third in the middle, or Rp28 à 3/ CB vi 18 v (see incipits), 612-3
these words being used again as a refrain in ‘By hills and dales’ à 4 Rd29 (refrain ‘Downe a downe, derry’) (47) (cf 176, 394) 614
and among his ‘Country pastimes’ à 4 ‘There were three ravens’ Rm20 (refrain ‘Downe a downe, hey downe’). tune & words C59/ CW75/ G19/ K87; ۞BaS 15/ ۞BaW4/ ۞CamP2/ ۞CwL7/ ۞CwM11/ ۞Du7/ ۞Tv 2 vi; +g K87; consort song S+tr-v A+a-v T+t/b-v B + t/b-v incorporated in the COBBOLD quodlibet of popular tunes, ‘New fashions,’ MB xxii 71 bars 175-185; words CS26. 615
Could Mistress Quickly be practising her part in one of these catches when she sings ‘And down, down adown-a’ when Doctor Caius interrupts her quizzingly and dismissively ‘Vat is you sing?’ in MW I iv 41 (176) 616
Conversely there are a number of ‘do-re-mi’ rounds featuring the rising scale and sometimes using the whole *hexachord as ‘Ut re mi fa sol la’ à 5 Rp 86, which continues ‘hey, down, down, sing you now after me’ 617 (1523)
Rd 23 *‘Ut re mi fa sol la’ à 4 has a rise and fall of the whole hexachord, with ‘Hey downe, downe, downe’ as refrain 618 (1524)
Rp 71 *‘Ut re mi fa mi re ut’ à 4, that is, it goes half way up the hexachord then falls 619 (1525)
Also among the ‘delightful catches’ in Pammelia is the rather syncopated ‘Come follow me merrily my mates’ à 5 Rp75; ۞Du22/ ۞R 14. (For another tune to two others opening with the words ‘Come follow’ (see Title index) (143e) 620
and ‘Hey ho, nobody at home’ à 3 TTB Rp85/ K101; ۞CPDL3928
Another source of Elizabethan catches à 4-5 is the GB-Ckc ms compiled by Thomas Lant in 1580 which includes the patriotic ‘Allegra, Anglia’ à 4 VA1/ PE63 621
another with the ‘Hey down a-down’ refrain is ‘Jenkin the jester’ à 5 Rp84/ VA2 622 (631)
and yet another *Robin Hood piece ‘Sing after fellows’ à 4 Rp74/ VA3 which appears as the bass line with ‘Said Little John’ in the tenor. (348b) 623
On a more serious note comes perhaps the best known round of the period which has been attributed to BYRD, ‘Non nobis Domine’ à 3 1575 (76a) 624
see especially RAVENSCROFT in composer list, and under *drinking songs and catches.
caterwauling see *catches
ceremonial music under this heading CM414-421 presents a representative anthology (with indication of length and instrumentation of most) of 13*alarums, a *dead march, 4 *drum cadences , a *march, a *retreat, a *sennet, 6 timpani patterns, 22 *tuckets and *flourishes.
A useful fanfare is ‘Vive le Roy’ à 4 by JOSQUIN GS41; rATTB in sLPM AN6 625
In the fine DOWLAND ‘Queen Elizabeth, her Galliard’ the majestic opening is followed by phrases suggesting *fanfares and *trumpet calls D41/ Dj i 2; gNR40 (see also *galliard) 626 (872)
See also *processional music, *trumpet.
character music cf G7 xx 192-3
charge see *alarum
chi passa TNK III v 86 a tune which stemmed from a Villotta alla padovana of AZZAIOLO 1557 which became popular in England (384, 544) 627
Child ballads The 5 volume English and Scottish popular ballads compiled by Francis James Child appeared between 1882-98, an invaluable source of early ballad texts. (46, 55b, 235, 247e, 347b, 381, 382, 615)
cinque-pace (les cinq pas; sink-a-pace) ‘the basic step pattern of the *galliard, *tourdion and *saltarello’. consisting of 5 steps taken to 6 crotchets of music’ (G7 v 863). Sometimes used as a synonym for *galliard. BR traces the earliest British allusion to 1590, and Shakespeare alludes to the ‘sink-a-pace’ or ‘cinque-pace’ in Mu II i 78 and in TN I iii 123, 132 and 140. ۞BroS32 is an example with the explicit title ‘Sinkapace galliard’; see *galliard
cittern popular Elizabethan metal stringed instrument with a flat back played with a plectrum; sometimes had an elaborately carved grotesque head (cf N18); guitar could step into its repertory shoes. It is one of the group of instruments forming the *broken consort.
close musical cadence as in H5 I ii 182
clowns and other comic actors as musicians the principal clowns who worked in Shakespeare’s company, Richard Tarlton who had been jester to Queen Elizabeth and joined ‘The Queen’s Men’ at their formation in 1583; he was succeeded at his death in 1588 by William Kempe (d. 1608) until he left the company to *jig his way from London to Norwich in February 1600, and than ‘over to France.’ He was succeeded by Robert Armin (c1568-1615) who by 1606 had joined Shakespeare’s company and who was equally adept at acting and singing (NOHM iv 819; cf Leslie Hotson Shakespeare’s motley, 1982). As well as being the chief *singer in the troupe, playing the three- holed *pipe and *tabor to accompany folk dances was part of their stock in trade. Particularly after the completion of the presentation of a play they would be expected to provide an improvised entertainment which was dubbed a *jig (q.v.). Sabol includes a ‘Comedian’s masque’ among his dances in ‘The Masque of Flowers’ SA219 628
There is an anti-masque by COPERARIO which Brade named ‘Comedianten Tantz’ 629 (1144)
And Andrew Charlton’s anthology provides a ‘Jester’s song’ CM376-377 630
and there is a clever little catch à 5 ‘Jenkin the jester’ (622) 631
Van den Borren notes how the dotted notes of the *Alman F200 produce a dancing rhythm suggestive of clowning, and the Alman F20 also has this spirit (V293) (434, 431) 632-3
A fine consort à 3 is the PRAETORIUS Ballet des fous rSSA/T RC i 22 633A
commands see under *alarum, *excursions, *sennet, *tucket
The jaunty GIBBONS keyboard piece ‘The Queen’s Command’ exudes confidence, although Hendrie considers that after the first twelve bars the piece tends to disintegrate and attributes this haphazard treatment to COSYN MB xx 28; ۞Py 1 634
conceit before the ‘wonderful sweet air’ Cloten asks (Cym II iii 17) the musicians to play ‘a very excellent good-conceited thing’ (cf Fn59-60 suggests such musical sophistication ‘contrapuntal tricks, diminution, augmentation, imitation’ as found in the Elizabethan *fancy.
A composer given to personal tiles, FARNABY, actually named one of his virginal pieces, ‘Farnaby’s conceit’ (447) 635
The opening strains of a fine early example from the time of Henry VIII of such a conceit is CORNYSH ‘Fa la sol’ à 3. MB xviii 6; ۞MnF8. John Stevens traces the title’s relevance to bar 13 onwards, but the piece’s otherwise somewhat complex polyphony might perhaps rule it out for use on stage. 636
concert in Suffolk’s diatribe in 2H6 III ii 327-8 the word is used for the enemy’s vocal cacophony
consort J. M. Nosworthy finds the ‘Shakespeare canon as a whole admits the supposition that a consort of viols and recorders was always available when the need arose’ (NN60).This instrumental grouping, most commonly à 4 or à 5, though there are fine examples à 2 (by Morley), à 3 (Gibbons), à 6 (Byrd). The abstract nature of most of these would be out of place in the theatre, but it is instrumental consort versions of popular melodies of the time by those same gifted Elizabethan composers and others that have been suggested in the course of this survey (examples 15d, 74, 106b, 188d, 354f, 1173)
Additional appropriate material will be found in such anthologies as those by Thurston Dart and Paul Doe, which feature a number of (often anonymous) pieces including two entitled ‘La Represa’ both consorts à 7! (GB-Lbl R.App 74, nos 13 and 15). These are MB xliv 89 & 91; ۞Hs 10-12 637-8
and other pieces not already mentioned are by WOODCOCK, the broadly sweeping and confident ‘Hackney’ à 5 (SSATB) a short piece which plays with syncopated rhythms MB xliv 18/ spEML 112b; ۞PaM2/ ۞Sf 16; rSATTB in 5 Tudor consorts; ed. Gaskell OL144 ii; ۞MsE i 20 639
and the quirky ‘Male-content’ à 4 + continuo by SIMPSON MB9: 105/ SZ37/ SZl 5; ۞KnM 11 640 (1039)
Reference to similar material will be found under the various headings for dance forms.
One of the most remarkable outpourings of the Elizabethan era was the madrigal à 3-6; although this form of singing would not suit the stage, instrumental versions could prove effective. It is good to find practical editions of some of this material as in the anthology of 14 dances and other tunes by Arthur Benoy, which also includes adapted lute songs, such as BARTLET ‘When from my love’, consort à 3 rSS/AA/T BE6; lute song LS ii 3: 3 641
and the hymn-like ‘Never weather-beaten saile’ à 4 by CAMPION rSS/AA/T BE7; rSA/T Z 1 (which is also set as a lute song.) 642 (1083)
or in the small collection by Ian Lawrence of 3 Madrigals arr. rSSATB (OUP, 1968) in the spirit of the famous specification (e.g. in Wilbye’s 1609 set) as ‘apt for voyces or vyols’; these comprise WEELKES ‘To shorten winter’s sadness’ (as SSATB madrigal EMS 10: 2/ S&B W13) 643 (918)
BYRD (attrib.) ‘My little sweet darling’ a lullaby 644 (1044)
and WILBYE ‘Oft have I vowed’ (madrigal EMS7: 20) 645
Oriel have recorder transcriptions à 3-6 of some of the finest in the repertoire including two sets of four madrigals à 3 by WILBYE, rSST or AAB OL221; rSAT or ATB OL 225; and in a pair comprising his justly acclaimed ‘Draw on sweet night’ together with TOMKINS ‘Music divine’ à 6 rSSAATB; as well as a set if three by WEELKES à 5 rSAATB OL195
Two of the instrumental consorts of PARSONS are curiously named as ‘songs’ in their titles: ‘A song of Mr. Parsons’ for consort à 5 MB xliv 35; ۞RoE3 646
and ‘The song called “Trumpetts”’ à 6 647 (1509)
The majestic acclamation ‘Long live fair Oriana’ which draws to a majestic close in ‘Hard by a crystal fountain’ à 6 of MORLEY could well lend itself to instrumental treatment. EMS 18/ PE92-3 ۞MsE ii 25 648
Transcriptions of two of the most perfect madrigals in the repertoire are by GIBBONS given in an edition by Layton Ring rSS/AATB UE12618 (1960) ‘Ah dear Heart’ (SATBarB: OBEM 4) 649
and ‘The Silver Swan’ S&B M501; (SATBarB: OBEM 47/ EMS5 also arr. SSA S&B W92). Both could be played as consort songs with viols as in a recording of ‘The Silver Swan’ ۞FP19; à 2 SA364 650
The ambiguous rhythms and exhilarating syncopation in ‘Though Amaryllis dance in green’ à 5 by BYRD, present a challenge to madrigal singers (SAATB) OBEM 49; ۞A2/ ۞RoM6; it may be treated instrumentally, or as a consort song for soprano and viols, and cannot fail to lift the spirits (separately S&B M1412). 651
The pastoral theme being the mainstay of the madrigal, another fine example adapted for recorders is MORLEY ‘Though Philomena lost her love’ à 3 (OBEM 50) rSSA Z10 652
Anoher Morley madrigal à 3 is worth consideration, ‘Do you not know’ rSAT Z14 653
and one by Michael EAST ‘And as I well as thou’ rSSA Z11 654
The expression ‘sweet consort’ is used in TG III ii 84 of the Serenade (cf N&26-7). (371-2)
Tybalt is made to pun, ‘Mercutio, thou consort’st with Romeo’ to which he replies ‘Consort! What! dost thou make us, minstrels?’ in R&J III i 44
see also *broken consort, *fancy, *pavan and *galliard and many of the other *dance forms
consort songs from the mid 16th century works began to appear set for high voice with parts for three or four viols, though adaptation of the instrumental parts for *broken consort would in some cases perhaps suit the stage context. An invaluable anthology is MB xxii Consort songs; ed. by Philip Brett; the 3 volume set of score and parts which form Peter Warlock’s ‘Elizabethan songs’ (WE i-iii) is also a useful collection. (9b, 10a, 56a, 57a, 66f, 170c, 215, 276c, 346, 347b)
Outstanding in this genre are those by BYRD (Consort songs from ms. sources, ed. P. Brett. S&B B361) ‘Crowned with flow’rs and lilies’ composed at the age of 15, though written as an elegy on the death of Queen Mary, could perhaps suit Titania lying asleep as an entr’acte between Acts II and III of MND (note also 501 above) (202) 655
Another fine piece is the dance song by Edward JOHNSON 1591 ‘Eliza is the fairest Queen’ for voice and 4 viols MB xii 33; ۞BoEs4a/ ۞Bw2/ ۞FP11/۞Q2, 4/ ۞Sk28, though naturally if it were used in the course of a performance on stage, the name to which it is dedicated could perhaps be altered; dance performance notes for schools Sk 62-65 656
The consort song by NICHOLSON ‘Joan quoth John’ M + SATB viols MB xxii 51/ WE i 7; rSSATB ed. Wyatt OL 117: 3 does not appear to be related to the Scottish folk melody to which Chappell set the words ‘Quoth John to Joan’ (1413) 657
The anonymous setting of a poem by The Earl of Surrey ‘If care do cause men cry’ for voice and three instruments appears in (RA58 f52r/ Stowe ms 389 f120) MB lxvi App. III: 2; opening bars in SP78; lute WZ61, 61a/ WM ii 8, 104 (discussed in WM i 121-3); also included as no 3 in 3 Consort pieces arr. Denis Bloodworth. Boosey & Hawkes (1975); uDO464-6; ۞DO ii 74 658
Other consort songs which turn up in various contexts in the survey: (66f, 130a, 191a, 253, 482, 487-9, 558, 644, 655-7, 807, 1013-9, 1044-5, 1174, 1201, 1322, 1431, 1439-40, 1472-3)
For a number of fine valedictory pieces in consort settings see under *lament, and *lullaby, for another remarkably affecting piece once attributed to him; see also *anthems (with viols).
See especially P. Brett ‘The English consort song 1570-1625’ PRMA lxxxviii (1921-2) 73
coranto; courante Alan Brissenden traces the earliest British allusion to 1564. An early English example is in kDV7. Sabol gives a short description in SA p.17 and Peggy Dixon in DI iii 16 659
H5 III v 33 alludes to the ‘swift corantos.’ This energetic dance usually is in triple time, ‘a *pavan but faster; faster than the *galliard’ (Fn37); described Fn56; steps DF134-5/ NE ii 82-5/ B232-3, witness ‘why dost thou not go to church in a *galliard, and come home in a coranto’ TN I iii 132-3. In AW II iii 46 the King of France has made such a remarkable recovery from his disability that ‘he’s able to lead in a coranto’.
Although the coranto was usually in triple time, Arbeau has one in common time; steps ARe123-4/ ARb109/ N144 (MM143) 660
and a description and steps for an Italian Renaissance ‘Corrente’ from the Negri dance manual, Le Gratie d’Amore, 1602 see NE ii 82-85/ DH12, 42-5, ۞DH no 7 661
There are a good number of appealing anonymous corantos, especially those in The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book; these include the excellent and surely familiar ‘English coranto’ F201 (Fn38b) 662
and one whose style is easy-going and would seem to lend itself to the stage is F203 in A minor Fa 9; gFd 9; rSAT Fm6 which Fellowes attributes to GIBBONS; 663
of F205 in D minor/ Fa24; rS/AS/T+k DPi 2; Fd 13; gFd13; 2gFe5 Dart notes here a strong *country dance element. 664
Among the group F223-6 which Edward Naylor (Fn7) recommends enthusiastically, and although he finds F226 appealing Fà 5, 665
he rates F224 the best work in this form (Fn 35-6), a piece for which Van den Borren likens the melodic turns as strongly analogous to those employed by Frescobaldi in his Courantes. 666
Another short anonymous example F225 which appears to be based on the Arbeau tune (600 above, though here in the usual compound duple time); it is also rated by Naylor as among the best Elizabethan dances (Fn56); Mabel Dolmetsch (DF142-3) included this as fitting the dance steps for the ‘Coranto d’Espagne’ (as it appears in GB-Ob MS Rawl. Poet 108). 667 (1468)
Van den Borren draws especial attention to ‘Coranto, The Lady Riche’ F265; 2gFe 9; rSSAT Fq8 (V398) 668
There is a fine BYRD Coranto in C major [C1] F241/ MB xxvii 45/ BYf 11; ۞MgM 16/ ۞Mo iv 7; 669
and another excellent short example is that in A minor [a 1] F218/ MB xxvii 21a, the first of three ‘French corantos’, obviously a version, if rather a surprisingly bouncy one, of the gracious ‘Belle qui tiens ma vie’ in Arbeau. (151c) 670 (1242)
The GIBBONS Coranto in F is not to be missed: MB xx 39/ GHg 15; rA + k BJ14 671
With the pavanes and galliards for consort à 5 by HOLBORNE the set is completed with a group of corantos, those in the major are: H61 ‘Wanton (Playfellow II)[J95]’; (332c) 672
and H63, the haunting, yet capricious ‘Fairie round’ [J90] with its captivating hemiola ending, is perhaps one of the most recorded pieces in this repertoire and should prove an ideal as a very short overture to open one of the comedies (188a) 673
In the minor are his ‘As it fell on a Holy Eve,’ [J118] H64; ۞DoP 13 i/ ۞He 1/ ۞HsT25/ ۞Ma4/ ۞MgO24; rSAATB Hn ii 5; l/t HB47/ HBj3; ۞Pb24; 674
the scintillating H65 ‘Heigh-ho holiday’ [J127] with its rhythmic ambiguity MB9: 69, Hg5; ۞Bw 10/ ۞CwM20/ ۞DoP13 ii/ ۞HsT4/ ۞Pb22; rSAATB Hn ii 2; ۞Gt19; rSSA/TTB RC i 45; Hp6; bqFN5; l/t HB39 as Galliard 13/ HBj4; the Welde (f6v) and the Board lute book also had versions lt (BO 20v 58); ۞BreW8/ ۞U21/ ۞W1; a Child ballad bearing this title: text CS283; 675
and ‘Widowes myte’ attributed to BACHILER [J84] H62; ۞BaL11/ ۞DoP2/ ۞Eg 12/ ۞YF3 ii; rSSATB Hb iii 3/ DQ6/ Hn ii 7 676
PRAETORIUS Terpsichore has a good number of fine courantes; these include P48 ‘Courante de la bataglia’ à 5, stirringly military, if a little unsubtle (514) 677
P81 Courante à 5: rSSTTB TR18 with description and steps TR p.83; rS+g Pc 12; gPw 2 678
P103 ‘La Rosette’ à 4 rS + g Pc 11; rA CT38 679
and four cheerful courantes (whose source as popular English country dances of the time is not evident from the plain form title) already included in the main survey: P123 à 4, a setting of ‘Packington’s Pound’ which uses what Claude Simpson describes as ‘an excellent tune which is easily singable and memorable without being monotonous’ (SB362); (303b) 680
P151 à 4 of ‘Wolsey’s Wilde’ (9b) 681
P152 à 4, familiar to Elizabethans as ‘Light o’ love’ ; (236) 682
and P154 in F à 4 based on the charmingly bouncy melody ‘Grimstock’; (184) 683
in contrast is the poignant P150 ‘Courante M M Wüstrow’ à 4 with its heart warming harmonies Pm iv 9; ۞EmP5/ ۞NeP12 i; rS + g Pr 4; 684
P157 à 4 rSATB DAb20; ۞PaD 27 turns out to have the same music as the DOWLAND lute piece ‘Mistress Winters jump’ which is tuneful, concise, sprightly and indeed danceable (FD f5v) rl/t BB18/ D55/ PN7/ RN20/ WZ58; ۞CmD x 13/ ۞Ex 11/ ۞Ld iv 5/ ۞Mf 15/ ۞OD i 13/ ۞YC29/ ۞YF6 iii; gDp2/l De3; rA CT41; Diana Poulton finds it one of his happiest short pieces (PD161) 685 (1348)
and P179 Courante à 4 has a pretty, yet haunting ‘Elizabethan’ sounding melody (209c) 686
Other lute pieces: PILKINGTON ‘Currant for Mrs Murcott’ (CH f3) PN11/ LU27; gDU11 687
and four anonymous pieces, ‘John Perrichon’s coranto PN12; which was also set by Praetorius à 5 P60/ Pm ii 5 688
the Queen’s coranto’ (originally for mandora, a small lute played with a plectrum) kSA410; 689
and VALLET has a ‘Courante de La Complainte’ VS i 50 689A
and three simply entitled ‘Currant’ LU28 and gDU9, 690-1
while the third, LU29, turns out to be an elaborate version of the famous Volta melody as used by Byrd for his fine set of variations. 692 (1349, 1531)
Others are a Coranto in the Board lute book (tBO 27r 87) BNd7/ WZ7; kF223 693
the tuneful ‘The Prince his corant’ by Robert JOHNSON (BN36) BNd4; as a consort rSSATB/ rSAB + k Jb20; ۞KyJ 120; kF264. (Versions of these last two are to be found in the Fitzwilliam virginal book as F223 and F264). 693A (728)
Perhaps the most familiar piece in this genre, though entitled ‘Corranto’ à 4 in CM316-7, which appears as a Volta in the Fitzwilliam Virginal book, F201. 693B
cornetts although technically woodwind, often played together with *sackbuts, they are among the *‘loud instruments’ (with *sackbuts, *hautboys and *shawms); effective in *processional, royal or triumphal contexts (cf. N172-3).
J. S. Manifold notes how they would have been used especially at Blackfriars’ and other private theatres, whereas trumpets were more suited to public theatres open to the sky. See also article by J. W. Sider ‘Shakespeare’s cornetts’ SQ xii (1971) 401-4 in which he notes that the 16th century cornett could mimic hunting horns but could also play chamber music and dances.
Coronation music *processional and music for the ceremonial liturgy (examples 107-8)
country dance Douglas Kennedy attempts to define this term (English folk dancing, 1964, p. 22) as a dance for men and women who at times partner one another, but dance as a community. See also Peter Walls ‘Common Sixteenth century dance forms’ Early music vol. 2 no 3 (July 1974) 164-5. The publication by John Playford of the first edition of The English dancing master is an invaluable source for excellent examples of country dance tunes, which though not published until 1651, a good many date back to the Elizabethan period, such as those already mentioned in the survey including a number of remarkably simple and immediately appealing tunes such as ‘Pepper’s black’, ‘All in a garden green’ and ‘My Lady Winwood’s maggot’; (120b, 15d, 355b) 694
while the perfect melody of ‘When Daphne from fair Phoebus did fly’ based on ‘The Shepherdess’ illustrates Walter Sorrell’s comment that many of the country dances went through stages of refinement and sophistication which allowed them to become acceptable to the nobility’ (article ‘Shakespeare and the dance’ in SQ viii 1957, 367-84) (191d) 695
Playford dance tune ‘Goddesses’ is taken from ‘Quodlings’ Delight’ of which the FARNABY piece for virginals F114 is ‘an impression of a little Romantic ballad, full of freshness and simplicity’ (BS226) (193) 696
Further particularly attractive dances not alluded to in the main text are:
‘Jenny plucked pears’ E95/ Eb47/ RE26 iii; 47 i/ SC vi 1/ SCt iii 1/ C211; ۞Cw 15/ ۞CwL 14 ii/ ۞EnG 15 iv; steps DI v 44; rSSA + pe Ek6 697
‘Green garters’, or ‘Lady, lye neare mee’ , longways for eight: a cheerful, confident, pretty dance tune RE46 vii/ E96/Eb194; also in a setting attributed to John JOHNSON ۞BaS 17/ ۞BaW3; violin & consort ۞MsE i 13 698
‘Lull thee beyond me’ for eight RE46 viii 698A
‘Cuckolds all a row,’ a catchy tune whose original ballad is lost RE9 iii/ RE44 i/ E67/ Eb19/ SC ii / SCt iii 13/ SCg 16; ۞BroP6/ ۞Hf5; 699
‘Hey boys up go we’, or ‘The King’s jig’/ SCg iii 4/ RE26 vi/ SB95/ CW306/ E19/ Eb227; tune and steps DI iv 22; ۞Do ii 24/ ۞Hp2 v/ ۞No 699A
the elegant ‘Fain I would if I could’ or ‘Parthenia’ E152/ Eb24/ SC iii 6/ SCt v 6/ SB134; in Elizabeth Rogers virginal book is a version ‘The King’s complaint’ tune SB135 700
‘Upon a summer’s day’, a particularly tuneful piece, RE37 i/ C254-5/ CW318/ E1/ Eb101/ SCiii 18/ SCt v 18; SB482; rS/TS/T Eh 6; ۞BroA11/ ۞KnQ16 701
[Margaret Dean-Smith notes its relationship to ‘Gipsies’ round’ for virginals by BYRD F216, his elaborate set of variations which she notes becomes clearer in a version with recorders and drum as played by the Dolmetsch family (E p.6). The version for mixed consort of viols, cittern, lute and harpsichord is effective as a country dance ۞ChF18] (1388)
‘Milkmayd’s bobb’, RE33 vii/ RE44 ix/ E75/ Eb61/ SC iv 3/ SCt vii 3; 702
‘Oaken leaves’ E91/ Eb206/ SCt vii 3 702A
the haunting, graceful ‘Mundesse’ RE46 v/ E92/ SC vi / SCt x 5; steps NE iv, originally a basse danse à 4 ‘Mon désir’ SU i 16 RE39; rSS/AA Ec7; tune and steps DI iv 48-9 703
‘Lavena’ or ‘The passionate lover’ RE21 vi/ RE43 v/ E59/ Eb53/ SC iv 9/ SCg ii 5; steps DI iv 7; 704
‘Picking of sticks’ RE38 ii/ E12/ Eb8/ SCg 11/ SCt vii 9; rSS/TT Eh5 704A
‘Rose is white and rose is red,’ RE40 viii/ E37/ Eb83/ SC vi / SCt x 1; rS HO49; 705
‘Step stately’ to the captivating tune of ‘Jack Pudding’ or ‘Merry Andrew’ RE32 iii/ E56/ Eb46/ SB468/ SC iv 12/ SCt vii 12; ۞BroP41/ ۞KnK19; rSSA+ pe Ek 11 706 (1192)
[The tune of ‘Step stately’ Long[ways] dance for 3, 5,7, or 9 Playford RE47 vi/ E102/ Eb98 was dropped by Sharp — and Dean-Smith surprisingly considered it dull – although the steps were retained] 706A
‘Nutmeg and ginger’ is another especially sprightly but somehow ‘innocent’ tune which appeared under various titles including a version for broken consort (70a) 707
For keyboard, the *Coranto F205 as noted already, has a strong country dance element; (518) 708
and there is an amusing descriptive (WT121) piece by BULL ‘Country dance’ MB xix 111; 709
‘Woodycock’ F141 set by WARD has a subject which Van den Borren describes as ravishing in its freshness and rhythm; (203b) 710
and the virginal piece based on a country dance tune ‘Barelye breake’ by BYRD Kerman characterises (G7 iv 719) as a ‘spring shower of irresistible little dance phrases’ . The dance itself is described in C135/ CW 270-1 (62d) 711
For consort, the second part of PRAETORIUS ‘La Bourrée’ à 4 P32/ P i; ۞EmP3/ ۞NeP2/ ۞PaD 14/ ۞Pb7 ii; rSATB Pt ii 7; rS + g Pc 16/ Pr 10; is a version of the English dance ‘Parson’s farewell’ tune RE22 iv/ RE37 vi/ E 6/ Eb75/ SC ii 10/ SCt iii 10/ SCg vi 6; rSSA + pe Ek7; rSAT/SSA Em 15; rSSA Ez2; rSSA Ed 1/ rS Er9; steps DI iv 19; ۞BroP42/ ۞CwL25 ii/ ۞No 13a; the piece is also in the Thysius lute book 712 (1347)
‘Carman’s whistle’ as a country dance tune is set in a wonderfully harmonised version by BYRD F58 and as a lute piece attributed to John JOHNSON (60, 610) 713
Peter Walls finds the spirit of country jollity much evident in ‘The Haymakers’ masque’ (314d) 714
Mention of further country dances will be found in the TITLE INDEX .
The Mulliner Book contains some early examples of French country dances in keyboard versions, La Bounette (La brunette) (52b) 715
La doune cella (La damoiselle) MB1 (f16) 14/ MB1a: 2/ MB1s; rA + g MB1d7; rS/A/T + g RD25; à 4: cornett, b-r, sa & b-curtal MB1b; ۞Gt 11; +bagpipe ۞YM5 716
La shy myze (La chemise) MB1 (f16v) 15/ MB1a: 3/ MB1s; rA + g MB1d 5; bagpipe, shawm & alto and bass curtals ۞YM6 717
see also *basse danse, *bergomask, *branle, *dance, *incidental music, *May games, *round , *shepherds, *volte, for a repertoire of early 16th century unsophisticated, tuneful dances issued in simple harmonised settings by Gervaise and others.
‘country rounds’ see *catches, *coranto (513), *rounds
courante see coranto
court dances see *dance, and specifically, alman, branle, canary, coranto, galliard, pavan, sarabande, toudion, volta. A fine example of such a dance whose title determines its specific use is PRAETORIUS Ballet du roy pour sonner après P269 RQ2; à 4 rSAT/AB RC i 32; tune alone rS/A/T RC i 2 718
cozier’s *catches cozier = cobbler; Malvolio’s protest to Sir Toby in TN II iii 93 suggests the rough and ready cobbling together of the vocal parts in music making with Feste and Sir Andrew.
cradle music see *lullaby
curtall predecessor of the bassoon, often used as bass in a consort of *shawms
cushion dances those which follow when the more formal court dances are completed (cf N114-5); ‘Joan Sanderson’ (‘an old round dance’) and ‘Sweet Margaret’ (Galliarde anglaise) RE 9 iv; Baskervill notes their apparent survival from a folk game (BS19). A description is given in PE53 (247c; 245a) 719-720
John Purser gives a Scottish cushion dance ‘Babity Bowster’ (i.e. ‘bolster’) which is ‘totally without decorum whose rhythms seem designed for the kind of articulation the violin is best at’, he suggests (PS147) 721
A Cushion dance RE9 iv is included on a recording by The York Waits using English bagpipe and capped shawms ۞YM 21, and another with Matthew Spring on lute ۞St27 721A-B
A description appears in Selden ‘Table Talk’. ‘At a solemn dancing you had the grave measures, then the *corantoes and *galliards and this kept up with the ceremony, at length to the *Trenchmore and the cushion dance, then all the company dances, lord and groom, lady and litchen maid, no distinction.’

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