This incorporates an attempt to follow up any kind of musical allusion in the play texts and stage directions which relate to dance and other musical forms. The examples chosen to represent musical forms are mainly by Elizabethan and Jacobean Court composers, often anonymous settings, here singled out for such qualities as concision and memorability. It should not prove a hindrance to their performance that pieces in this repertoire based on tunes and motifs from the popular music of the time for the most part was written for virginals, a gentle instrument unsuited to the stage and certainly inappropriate in open air performances. Much of this fine repertoire has been adapted for consorts of recorders or other instruments, and selection of titles for inclusion in this survey has often been related to the material drawn to my attention by the enthusiasm of the compilers of anthologies.

Works cited where a composer is not given are anonymous; in general, it is such pieces, especially those from the lute books, which will often prove most apt for use as stage music.

Full bibliographical citations (together with an incipit in musical notation) including those for related music in alternative settings are to be found in the preceding play survey within the serial number sequence 1-417. If a music suggestion has not been allocated to a particular point in a play, bibliographical information is given here in the NOTES, and if there is more than one numerical reference, see under the serial number in bold type within square brackets.

Included here also are various types of signals that may be encountered, as for instance those which might lend themselves to distinguish one particular faction or ‘house’ from another as they occur in the course of the plays.

see under word following the asterisk for detailed entry in these NOTES.


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A

alarm (à l’armes) military command – boot and saddle (Dart); a ‘representation of *battle’ (SM15) which, as Naylor remarks (N159-160), is a signal normally played on a drum; though trumpets are occasionally indicated in the play’s wording, as in 2H6 II iii 93 and V ii 3 or in stage directions as in T&C IV iv 112 (Alarum), 117 (Trumpets cease).
Of the many alarums indicated in the stage directions in JC Act V these could be played as confused noises of drums, trumpets, and clashing of armour (MM176). Occasionally a specific suggestion has been given, as for A&C IV vii 0 (Alarums. Drums and trumpets) LH 271: 8 La charg conflictus (13) 418
CM418 gives 13 alarums for trumpets with optional drums of 2 or more seconds each
CM419 gives 10 alarums for drums, and others in LH271-2
After the alarm bell had been rung in Mac II iii 75, Lady Macbeth refers to the noise as ‘a hideous trumpet’ and there is an allusion to alarm bell again at V v 51
A coranto by BULL actually features ‘Alarm’ as the title MB xix 80; ۞A13 419
alarums and excursions see under excursions
alman; almain; allemande slow dance in common time or binary rhythm (V289), the name implying its German origin, (1549 being the first traced British allusion) was to become one of the principal dances composed in the Elizabethan period. Naylor has noted its relation to the *branle (‘French brawle’) (Fn41); (Dart 117 quotes from Morley) ‘the alman is heavier than the *galliard, but twice the speed of the *pavan’. Van den Borren notes that the genre tends to express feelings of repose and contentment (V289). Steps and description are given in Arbeau, who characterises the alman as ‘A plain dance of a certain gravity,’ in which ‘a couple dance with the man and woman side by side; the dancers proceed in a line of couples from one end of the hall to the other, each turning his partner around in such a way as to reverse the line and go back to the original place.’ John Ward mentions that the alman seems to have been introduced to the English court as early as 1554 following the Wedding supper of Philip and Mary (WH176-7).
Descriptions of the dance appear in G7 i 394-7 and especially relevant is Ian Payne ‘The Almain in Britain, c1549-c1675, a dance manual from ms. sources’, Dance |Books (2003) incorporating choreographies associated with the Inns of Court. Examples appear in *ARBEAU as ‘L’Allemande’ ARe 125-7; 253; à 4 ARi 8, ۞Pb11/ ۞Q19 i-iii, v 420
Mabel Dolmetsch includes an anonymous example of an Allemande (with steps) kDF144-6; 421
And another is given in RE7 iii 421A
and there is an Allemande from a GERVAISE dance print rS/A/T + g RD7/HM137c 422
An Almain à 5 by HAUSSMANN, no 71 from his 1603 set, is in the invaluable Renaissance dance collection by Thomas and Gingell as TR 14a rSAATB (with steps as a pavan TR p. 43); 423
their TR3 appeared first in an English early 16th century ms., the Lumley part books (GB-Lbl Roy. App. 74-6) f41v, as ‘*Pavin of Albart’ à 7 (?Innocenzio ALBERTI) MB xliv 97/ HV94-5; ۞FP4/ ۞Hs1/ ۞PaM12/ ۞RoE18; later featured as ‘Si je m’en vois’, no. 4 in Attaignant’s 1557 set à 5 LPM AD3: 1/ ATp2, rTR3; ۞Mt25; and as‘ Allemande savoye’ in the 1571 set by Phalèse; steps DI iii 4, 12 (tune variants DI iii 31), ۞DI iii 4, 12 . This same dance movement appears à 4 (SU ii 39) as one of the eight allemandes in Susato’s Danserye 1551 (SU ii 34-41); rA CT33 in the Dublin virginal Book c1570 as ‘Allemande (du) Prince’ kDB15-16; à 4 DBt3, and in GB-Lbl.Add. MS 29485 f 12v 1599 as ‘Allemande prynce’ given in Ferguson Early German keyboard music vol l (1970) 6 (cf CDe 103). Peter Holman reasons that the composer was Alberto di Venitia` (cf HV79-82, 93) 424
In these versions there is a reprise in the rhythm of a *galliard using the same melody in triple Triple metre (CDe 103) and so this pair became known as (pavan or allemande) ‘Si je m’en vois’ and (galliarde or reprise) ‘L’ennuy qui me tourmente’, the latter after a chanson by CERTON. A seemingly related Allmaigne with its ‘Recoupé’ in ¾ appears in Susato’s collection SUd4 i-iii 425
Another pair of Phalèse dances are ‘Allemande d’Anvers’ with its galliard PG2-3 426-7
Anne Daye gives steps for ‘The Cecilia Almaine’ providing music by AMMERBACH ‘Der Magister Dantz’ 428 (897)
Hechler’s anthology ‘English allemandes c1600’ (rSA Moeck 448) represents more of these appealing Elizabethan pieces in a serviceable form (The incipit opposite is quoted in the Moeck catalogue). 429
The antiquity of the memorable ‘Black almain’ is attested in SB p. 42-6 which in the lute ms. (LO f20) WM ii 30-31, tune alone SA352/ SB28, appears as ‘Mésur’; steps DF53-4/ SA p.546/ DI iv 13; sung to ‘Maid will you marry me?’ as vocal duet with fiddle, cittern and flute ۞Ci 24 i 430
From the 8 anonymous examples in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book Thurston Dart has singled out F20; rSATT/B Fg4; the short and striking F227, together with F14 (336h) 431-3
and the beautiful yet simple F200/ Fa 12 which Dart considers was probably a masque tune. (Van den Borren has noted the comic dancing rhythm produced by the dotted notes, V293) 434
Alman F152 by MORLEY has a particularly arresting melody. (Fn38) and features a *Bergomask ground bass (WT112) (215h) 435
his Alman ‘Nancie’ F12 based on a attractively jaunty popular tune also exists in versions for lute and in German sources as consorts à 6 and à 5 (description and steps in TR p75) (221) 436
A very fine Allemenade with its memorable opening is by FARNABY RC i 47 436A
F222 by HOOPER (originally ascribed to Farnaby) is considered one the best almans by Naylor and one of the best short dances in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (Fn7); John Morehen (G6 viii 687) writes that Hooper’s few pieces of keyboard music are characterized by a ‘sense of poise and feeling of balanced phrases.’ Fa7 437
Another HOOPER Almain is in the Drexel ms. 5612 p.164-5 GE31 438
BULL’s Duke of Brunswick’s alman F142, is a brilliantly animated piece; (320a) 439
Three others of his almans are in MB xix 135; 2gBUq 1; rS + k, 440
and in MB xix 142 and 115 440A,B
PEERSON Alman F90/Fa18 is short and simple with a striking melody. 441
In the BYRD ‘Monsieur’s almain’ set by Morley for *broken consort, the short statement opening makes it appropriate for stage use; note also a lute setting by BACHELER of which Matthew Spring writes ‘his greatest gift is the imagination he employs in this work’ (SP244), Another alman with this title is by HOLBORNE for cittern, the ‘Monsieur’ of the title referring to the Duke of Alençon, the rejected suitor of Queen Elizabeth. (256a ii) 442
Thurston Dart chose two almans for his short BYRD anthology: [g2] F163 /M27: 11/ BYf4 443
and [G3] F156/ M28: 89/BYf2 which Neighbour admires for its ‘sheer vitality’ (NB169-170) 444
who attributes the anonymous Alman [C2] to Byrd, being ‘more refined in workmanship than any other in the whole repertory of virginal music’ MB xxviii (2nd ed.) 117/ BYs 1, and no 1 in Neighbour’s edition of ‘3 Anonymous keyboard pieces attributed to William Byrd’ OUP 445
Among Byrd’s others in this form is ‘The Queen’s alman’ [g1] F172 which Neighbour notes was based on a tune ‘internationally popular in the 1560s’ and van den Borren describes it as a ‘charming composition whose joyous and elegant figuration remind him of the sprightly technique of the lutenists. The setting for cittern by Holborne 1597 as ‘The old Almaine’ is considerably less elaborate and is the quintessence of stateliness. (320b) 446
Almans by FARNABY include the piece known as ‘Farnaby’s Conceit’ kF273/ MB xxiv 52/ FAd 7; rA + g FAf 1; gFAg3; rS + k DD3 (635) 447
and one of which van den Borren describes the humorous effect his ‘Meridien alman’ produces as ‘gaiety pushed to fooling and vulgarity’ (V292) F291/ MB xxiv 24; the piece is also known as ‘The New almaine’ description, steps and tune DI iii 32 448
GIBBONS is represented by a keyboard Alman in d MB xx 33/ GH8/ GHg 9; rA + k BJ13 449
Robert JOHNSON composed especially for his instrument, the lute, while some of his almans exist in keyboard arrangements. Attribution of a number of works hitherto grouped as anonymous have been convincingly attributed to him. Johnson is well represented in Thurston Dart’s small selection from the 297 pieces which comprise the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book: the lively alman is simply written and quite danceable kF145/ Fa20; lute Ja7; gHZ7/ NR23/ RP 1 which is known in the lute version as ‘The Prince’s almain’ (young Prince Henry, a keen dancer, who died as a youth in 1612) whose opening phrase is especially striking (BO 16r 46); ۞BreG1 iii/ ۞KyJ 18, ۞WS 410; 450
the others are: kF147/ MB xxiv 23/ Fa21/ FAd12; rS + k Fr8; lute Ja10/ LU19/ MC6/ PN9 451
and the third, in Edward Naylor’s opinion, one of the best Elizabethan dances (Fn56) F146/ Fa 14; lute Ja 11; ۞KyJ 17/ ۞Sa 14, 16, 24 452 (727, 1153)
Both Ja7 and Ja11 have become popular for the ‘tunefulness of their melody and for their consistent tonality’ (ML 1950, 111). The second of a set of three dances known as ‘The First/ Second /Third of the Princes’ à 2 in *Le Strange and as ‘Der ander Mascharada’ in Brade, also appears as an Alman in The Fitzwilliam virginal book kF202, à 2 (LM136: f54r, 103v) BN32/ SA189/ LMw i 21; ۞MgO 4 453 (1154)
Three of his other generally simple and short tuneful lute almans are to be found in Sundermann’s anthology:
‘Hit and take it’ (BO f41 165) Ja8; ۞BreG1 i/ ۞KyJ 19/ ۞Sa23 454
‘Lady Strang’s alman’, Ja 9; ۞BreG1 ii/ ۞Sa 18 455
‘To the stump’ Ja 13 (Jeffery notes that this refers to an instrument of the cittern type), 456
and another alman appeared in Brade’s famous collection (BN35) 2co+3tbn or rSSATB BNd3 457
For consort à 4 (SSTB) are his two ‘alman-like’ (HV257) masque dances, ‘The Temporiser’ and ‘The Witty wanton’ (GB-Lbl Add MSS 36933 f9v no 17) MB9: 31-32; ۞Bw19 458-9
There are three fine lute Almains by CUTTING in (CH f100) BB5, CF16/ LU18; gCFj 3/ DU10; ۞BreG5; BB5/ CF32; gHZ3, and (GB-Cu D d 9.33.9) CF17. Heringman plays an almaine (PI 62) on ۞HeP4. Matthew Spring considers Curring’s contribution to the form the most perfectly balanced in the repertoire (SP148) 460-2
DOWLAND’s lute almans, some of which exist in consort versions which were included in his ‘Lachrimae’ set of 1604, do someimes belie his reputation as a depressive. Fine examples include ‘Mr George Whitehead, his Almain’ for 5 viols and lute, of which Diana Poulton writes that it is ‘exceedingly good humoured with a rhythm very apt for dancing’ (PD370) DA21/ DAb15; ۞CmD vi 25/ ۞DoL 10/ ۞Ex21/ ۞FD21/ ۞FG i 23/ ۞Ld iii 3/ ۞RoC20; 463
‘Mistress Nichols Almane,’ D52/ RN 19; ۞DoH16/ ۞OD iii 18/ ۞RoC2; gDe4/ Dp6; consort DA20; ۞FD20; à 2 ۞CmD xi 22; à 5 ۞CmD xi 24; bc ۞CmD vi 28/ ۞EmH29; rSSATB DAb 17 she describes as a cheerful little piece (PD369), of which there are two other versions, one which Simpson disguised as ‘Aria à 4’ SZl 5; and the other appears in Le Strange without dedication as ‘An Allmaine’ (LM pt i: 9r, 64 r) SA379; ۞FG i 22/ ۞KnM18, 464
‘Lady Hunsdon’s Puffe’ D54/ LU17; ۞BreD4/ ۞CmD ix 24/ ۞DeE8/ ۞Ex 13 /۞Ld9 i 20//۞Mf5/ ۞OD ii 1/ ۞Ph37/ ۞Ta 13/ ۞Th5/ ۞YF8; gNR42; rSATB DAb 16 (Lord Hunsdon was patron of Shakespeare’s company), a short piece ‘full of infectious gaiety’ (NOHM iv 703). It could lend itself as part of a sequence of interval music during the peformance of a comedy; 465
others are ‘The Lady Laiton’s almone’ (‘English dance’), lute D48/ Dj i 3/ SA341; ۞BoD6/ ۞BreG22/ ۞CmD ix 13/ ۞FD10/ ۞Hf 15/ ۞Hp 11 i/ ۞Mf 10/ ۞OD i 8; gDe 1/ Dk7; rS/A/T +g RG 10; kMB lv 33; steps SA p.547; 466
the pleasantly easy-going ‘Sir John Smith his almain’ D47; ۞BreD11/ ۞CmD viii 6/ ۞Ex 20/ ۞Ld i 4/ ۞Mf 1/ ۞OD ii 4; gDb4; 467
and the ‘entirely charming, neat, compact and wittily written’ P50/ PD159 ‘Mistris Whittes Thinge (PI 19r) PI 43/ PIv 21/ D50/ WY 14; ۞CmD x 18/ ۞Ld iii 4/ ۞OD i 19 468
Almans by HOLBORNE are in versions for consort, cittern or lute, including ‘The Choise’ [J70] H59; ۞DoP 1/ ۞Go l:5/ ۞He 11/ ۞HsT3/ ۞Pb23/ ۞YC25/ ۞YF2; [rSSATB Hb i 3/ Hn ii 8/ RC iii 35; SS+g Hl: 4; l HB44; rA + k BJ 1]; 469
and those which have already been suggested for use in the plays, ‘Night Watch,’ (233) 470 (732)
‘Honie-Suckle’ (a version of ‘Heart’s-ease’ in the minor mode) whose pervading despondency probably made John Duarte conclude ascription to Dowland; (245c, 281a) 471
and ‘Walsingham’, perhaps one of the best known musical motifs after ‘Greensleeves’. (44) 472
Further consort settings include an Almaine by DERING à 5 DW2; rSSATB BC ii 24 473
and from his 1621 compilation of 50 dances à 4 + continuo there is an Alman among the seven actually composed by SIMPSON himself SZ20/ MB9:107. 474
Peter Holman (G7xxiii 414) draws attention to the irresistible tunes used in ALISON dance settings; consort (treble viol, flute, lute,cittern, bandora and bass viol) ‘LadyFrances Sydney’s Almain’ MB40:5; rSATB ET4; ۞Eg 11; and another without dedication MB xl 4; ۞Md30 475-6
Two almains by Jacobean composers taken from three-movement suites, include one by COPERARIO for 3 viols [from Suite no 9] MB xlvi:9; ۞R17; rS+k BJ6 477
and another by FERRABOSCO ‘full of noble rapture’ gBG3; ۞FP10, 16 ii (VdGS 10; 1) 478
Perhaps the most familiar melody among all these is an Almand à 5 in the 1617 collection of masque dances by BRADE himself in his publication BN42; rSSATB BNd5 478A
animal depiction in music see also *masque and antimasque
‘Clement’s squirrel’ is a cheerful little lute piece (CH f42v) HT5; gSG 11; à 3 (STB) viols or recorders GA; ۞Md26 479
another such is ‘Squirrel’s toy’ for lute by CUTTING. 480 (1487)
WEELKES ‘The ape, the monkey and the baboon’, an entertaining piece for three male voices from Ayres and phantastic sprites 1608; 481 (1171)
and there are catches for two voices and 3 viols, ‘Of all jolly pastimes good fellows do use,
bull baiting is best’ which continues ‘And here cometh my dog, And then they cry bow-wow’ MB xxii 58/ PE76 482
Other doggie music includes a consort song by BYRD My mistress had a little dog’ (374) 483
and ‘Will ye buy a fine dogge…with a dildo, diddle dildo?’ by MORLEY (409b) 484
Antimasquers sometimes wore animal heads as in ‘The Baboon’s dance’ which has been attributed to Robert JOHNSON; (386k) 485
and another antimasque appears in L’Estrange as ‘The Apes’ dance at the Temple’ (LM 53r, 102v)
SA185 which also exists in a keyboard version as a ‘Toy’ SA287 486 (1497)
anthem; motet although the singing of anthems is alluded to, the stage would not in general
seem an appropriate place for such performance, though in such a situation as the Coronation scene H8 IV i, or 2H6 II i 67 a possible choice of anthems is suggested (107, 84)
the inspired polyphonic vocal settings by such masters as Byrd and Gibbons would perhaps be found over-sophistocated for stage use, though should an instrumental consort be playing during the course of a play, then perhaps a piece for solo voice with viol consort might prove effective: for instance included among the *songs in MB xxii are:
38, the anonymous ‘Come Holy Ghost, eternal God;’ with ATT/BB viols (10a) 487
44: COSYN ‘Yield unto God,’ a setting of Psalm 150 with SA/TT/BB viols 488
and 45 WILBYE ‘Ne reminisceris’ with SATB viols 489
as well as a simple uplifting anthem by ALISON ‘Our Father which in Heaven art’ (107d) 490
See also* laments
antic, antik, anticke masque; antimasque see *masque amd antimasque
apparitions see *supernatural effects
Arbeau, Thoinot (Jehan Tabourot, 1520-95) author of the dance manual Orchésographie, 1588 (AR) in which will be found a number of versions of 16th century French dance tunes, some of which had been also popular in England
see also under *allemande, *basse danse, *branle, *canaries, *coranto, *galliard, *pavan, *tourdion
Armin, Robert see *clowns as musicians